R4 Ballot #1 (Mixed Normative/Trial use) Current Build
This page was published as part of FHIR v3.3.0: R4 Ballot #1 : Mixed Normative/Trial use (First Normative ballot). It has been superceded by R4 . For a full list of available versions, see the Directory of published versions .

8.21 8.18 Resource Person - Content

Patient Administration Work Group Maturity Level : 2   Trial Use Security Category : Patient Compartments : Patient , Practitioner , RelatedPerson

Demographics and administrative information about a person independent of a specific health-related context.

An The Person resource serves as a linkage resource that may provide a reference set of common demographics for an individual has identity outside (human or animal) across multiple roles.
This linkage can be direct to role-specific FHIR resources (Patient, Practitioner and RelatedPerson) residing on the same or possibly distinct FHIR systems/applications, or indirectly through the use of a healthcare setting. business identifiers.

The Person resource is may be used in many situations/contexts, including:

  • A set of demographics that can be used to capture co-ordinate the maintenance of this de-normalized information and across practitioners, patients and/or related persons
    e.g. link known resources of the different types together within a system
  • A state/network based Master Person Index
    e.g. A National Identifier Index or a Network membership/subscriber list
  • A central register that links patient resources from multiple servers, indicating they all correspond to relate the same individual
    e.g. Within a large organization with many systems to be able to link the various records, without having to modify the source information with external links
  • A support for access monitoring software that is able to assert what practitioner, patient and related person as an records correspond to the same human being to assist in detecting improper querying.
    e.g. asserting that a Patient A is the same individual as a RelatedPerson B who is related to other Patient C, who is also Practitioner D. As such, monitoring for Practitioner D’s accesses to Patient A’s records should be carefully scrutinized.
  • Local record(s) on a mobile device listing links to remote server patient resources that do
    e.g. A mobile phone application storing references to the hospitals they have a health-related context. access to

For example, while Note: The Person resource is an advanced feature. Many systems don’t have a patient way to relate information across resource may be created types, or systems, especially from Patient to Practitioner, and maintained by each organization providing care for therefore might not implement this functionality. Some do have ways of relating the Patient and RelatedPerson resource types. FHIR is also able to do this without the Person resource, utilizing the Patient.link property (as shown in the Mother and newborn relationship example)

Person resources may have references to Patient, RelatedPerson and/or Practitioner resources. These linkages assert that person all the records relate to the same individual.

Person instances are never directly referenced as actors (authors, subjects, performers, etc.) Individual actors are always identified as either Patient, Practitioner or RelatedPerson, depending on the role of the individual when undertaking the action. Therefore this resource SHALL NOT be referenced by any other clinical or administrative resources. E.g. it can be the focus of an operation or message or included in a patient, Bundle, but cannot be a person resource provides member of a mechanism List or Group, the subject of an Observation, or other similar non-infrastructural usage.

In some use cases the linkages will be indirect, and through business Identifiers, such as in the case of the various types of Master Person Indexes, where the records are not there for linking patient resources across different organizations the purpose of healthcare, but simply describing a population of people, and their unique patient identity domains. has other purposes and not just to represent a population patients.

This resource is not referenced by CatalogEntry and itself.

This resource does not implement any other resources. patterns.

Structure

Name Flags Card. Type Description & Constraints doco
. . Person TU DomainResource A generic person record
Elements defined in Ancestors: id , meta , implicitRules , language , text , contained , extension , modifierExtension
. . . identifier 0..* Identifier A human identifier for this person
. . . name Σ 0..* HumanName A name associated with the person
. . . telecom Σ 0..* ContactPoint A contact detail for the person
. . . gender Σ 0..1 code male | female | other | unknown
AdministrativeGender ( Required )
. . . birthDate Σ 0..1 date The date on which the person was born
. . . address 0..* Address One or more addresses for the person
. . . photo 0..1 Attachment Image of the person
. . . managingOrganization Σ 0..1 Reference ( Organization ) The organization that is the custodian of the person record
. . . active ?! Σ 0..1 boolean This person's record is in active use
. . . link 0..* BackboneElement Link to a resource that concerns the same actual person
. . . . target 1..1 Reference ( Patient | Practitioner | RelatedPerson | Person ) The resource to which this actual person is associated
. . . . assurance 0..1 code level1 | level2 | level3 | level4
IdentityAssuranceLevel ( Required )

doco Documentation for this format

XML Template

<Person xmlns="http://hl7.org/fhir"> doco
 <!-- from Resource: id, meta, implicitRules, and language -->
 <!-- from DomainResource: text, contained, extension, and modifierExtension -->
 <identifier><!-- 0..* Identifier A human identifier for this person --></identifier>
 <name><!-- 0..* HumanName A name associated with the person --></name>
 <telecom><!-- 0..* ContactPoint A contact detail for the person --></telecom>
 <gender value="[code]"/><!-- 0..1 male | female | other | unknown -->
 <birthDate value="[date]"/><!-- 0..1 The date on which the person was born -->
 <address><!-- 0..* Address One or more addresses for the person --></address>
 <photo><!-- 0..1 Attachment Image of the person --></photo>
 <managingOrganization><!-- 0..1 Reference(Organization) The organization that is the custodian of the person record --></managingOrganization>
 <active value="[boolean]"/><!-- 0..1 This person's record is in active use -->
 <link>  <!-- 0..* Link to a resource that concerns the same actual person -->
  <</target>

  <target><!-- 1..1 Reference(Patient|Person|Practitioner|RelatedPerson) The resource to which this actual person is associated --></target>

  <assurance value="[code]"/><!-- 0..1 level1 | level2 | level3 | level4 -->
 </link>
</Person>

Turtle Template

@prefix fhir: <http://hl7.org/fhir/> .doco
[ a fhir:Person;
  fhir:nodeRole fhir:treeRoot; # if this is the parser root
  # from Resource: .id, .meta, .implicitRules, and .language
  # from DomainResource: .text, .contained, .extension, and .modifierExtension
  fhir:Person.identifier [ Identifier ], ... ; # 0..* A human identifier for this person
  fhir:Person.name [ HumanName ], ... ; # 0..* A name associated with the person
  fhir:Person.telecom [ ContactPoint ], ... ; # 0..* A contact detail for the person
  fhir:Person.gender [ code ]; # 0..1 male | female | other | unknown
  fhir:Person.birthDate [ date ]; # 0..1 The date on which the person was born
  fhir:Person.address [ Address ], ... ; # 0..* One or more addresses for the person
  fhir:Person.photo [ Attachment ]; # 0..1 Image of the person
  fhir:Person.managingOrganization [ Reference(Organization) ]; # 0..1 The organization that is the custodian of the person record
  fhir:Person.active [ boolean ]; # 0..1 This person's record is in active use
  fhir:Person.link [ # 0..* Link to a resource that concerns the same actual person
    fhir:

    fhir:Person.link.target [ Reference(Patient|Person|Practitioner|RelatedPerson) ]; # 1..1 The resource to which this actual person is associated

    fhir:Person.link.assurance [ code ]; # 0..1 level1 | level2 | level3 | level4
  ], ...;
]

Changes since R3

No Changes
Person
Person.gender
  • Change value set from http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/administrative-gender|4.0.0 to http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/administrative-gender|4.1.0
Person.link.assurance
  • Change value set from http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/identity-assuranceLevel|4.0.0 to http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/identity-assuranceLevel|4.1.0

See the Full Difference for further information

This analysis is available as XML or JSON .

See R2 <--> R3 <--> R4 Conversion Maps (status = 5 tests that all execute ok. All tests pass round-trip testing and all r3 resources are valid.). Note: these have note yet been updated to be R3 to R4 valid.)

Structure

Name Flags Card. Type Description & Constraints doco
. . Person TU DomainResource A generic person record
Elements defined in Ancestors: id , meta , implicitRules , language , text , contained , extension , modifierExtension
. . . identifier 0..* Identifier A human identifier for this person
. . . name Σ 0..* HumanName A name associated with the person
. . . telecom Σ 0..* ContactPoint A contact detail for the person
. . . gender Σ 0..1 code male | female | other | unknown
AdministrativeGender ( Required )
. . . birthDate Σ 0..1 date The date on which the person was born
. . . address 0..* Address One or more addresses for the person
. . . photo 0..1 Attachment Image of the person
. . . managingOrganization Σ 0..1 Reference ( Organization ) The organization that is the custodian of the person record
. . . active ?! Σ 0..1 boolean This person's record is in active use
. . . link 0..* BackboneElement Link to a resource that concerns the same actual person
. . . . target 1..1 Reference ( Patient | Practitioner | RelatedPerson | Person ) The resource to which this actual person is associated
. . . . assurance 0..1 code level1 | level2 | level3 | level4
IdentityAssuranceLevel ( Required )

doco Documentation for this format

XML Template

<Person xmlns="http://hl7.org/fhir"> doco
 <!-- from Resource: id, meta, implicitRules, and language -->
 <!-- from DomainResource: text, contained, extension, and modifierExtension -->
 <identifier><!-- 0..* Identifier A human identifier for this person --></identifier>
 <name><!-- 0..* HumanName A name associated with the person --></name>
 <telecom><!-- 0..* ContactPoint A contact detail for the person --></telecom>
 <gender value="[code]"/><!-- 0..1 male | female | other | unknown -->
 <birthDate value="[date]"/><!-- 0..1 The date on which the person was born -->
 <address><!-- 0..* Address One or more addresses for the person --></address>
 <photo><!-- 0..1 Attachment Image of the person --></photo>
 <managingOrganization><!-- 0..1 Reference(Organization) The organization that is the custodian of the person record --></managingOrganization>
 <active value="[boolean]"/><!-- 0..1 This person's record is in active use -->
 <link>  <!-- 0..* Link to a resource that concerns the same actual person -->
  <</target>

  <target><!-- 1..1 Reference(Patient|Person|Practitioner|RelatedPerson) The resource to which this actual person is associated --></target>

  <assurance value="[code]"/><!-- 0..1 level1 | level2 | level3 | level4 -->
 </link>
</Person>

Turtle Template

@prefix fhir: <http://hl7.org/fhir/> .doco
[ a fhir:Person;
  fhir:nodeRole fhir:treeRoot; # if this is the parser root
  # from Resource: .id, .meta, .implicitRules, and .language
  # from DomainResource: .text, .contained, .extension, and .modifierExtension
  fhir:Person.identifier [ Identifier ], ... ; # 0..* A human identifier for this person
  fhir:Person.name [ HumanName ], ... ; # 0..* A name associated with the person
  fhir:Person.telecom [ ContactPoint ], ... ; # 0..* A contact detail for the person
  fhir:Person.gender [ code ]; # 0..1 male | female | other | unknown
  fhir:Person.birthDate [ date ]; # 0..1 The date on which the person was born
  fhir:Person.address [ Address ], ... ; # 0..* One or more addresses for the person
  fhir:Person.photo [ Attachment ]; # 0..1 Image of the person
  fhir:Person.managingOrganization [ Reference(Organization) ]; # 0..1 The organization that is the custodian of the person record
  fhir:Person.active [ boolean ]; # 0..1 This person's record is in active use
  fhir:Person.link [ # 0..* Link to a resource that concerns the same actual person
    fhir:

    fhir:Person.link.target [ Reference(Patient|Person|Practitioner|RelatedPerson) ]; # 1..1 The resource to which this actual person is associated

    fhir:Person.link.assurance [ code ]; # 0..1 level1 | level2 | level3 | level4
  ], ...;
]

Changes since DSTU2 Release 3

No Changes
Person
Person.gender
  • Change value set from http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/administrative-gender|4.0.0 to http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/administrative-gender|4.1.0
Person.link.assurance
  • Change value set from http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/identity-assuranceLevel|4.0.0 to http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/identity-assuranceLevel|4.1.0

See the Full Difference for further information

This analysis is available as XML or JSON .

See R2 <--> R3 <--> R4 Conversion Maps (status = 5 tests that all execute ok. All tests pass round-trip testing and all r3 resources are valid.). Note: these have note yet been updated to be R3 to R4 valid.)

 

Alternate See the Profiles & Extensions and the alternate definitions: Master Definition XML + JSON , XML Schema / Schematron + JSON Schema , ShEx (for Turtle ) + see the extensions , the spreadsheet version & the dependency analysis a

Path Definition Type Reference
Person.gender The gender of a person used for administrative purposes. Required AdministrativeGender
Person.link.assurance The level of confidence that this link represents the same actual person, based on NIST Authentication Levels. Required IdentityAssuranceLevel

Most of the properties of the Person resource are replicated within the other resources that they are shared with. This is intentional and highlights the loose coupling of the resources.

Not many systems implement a shared Person record, and as such the values DO become out of sync with each other. The inclusion of this resource does permit a capability for systems to identify other instances of this actual person's data via a centralized registry that can assist in keeping things up to date.

The link element is used to relate resources under a common person record. This element supports two primary scenarios where other resources refer to the same person resource.

The link element cannot be used to link to RelatedPerson entries, so we can use a Person resource to relate these elements together identifying them as the same individual.

In a data sharing network, finding the location of patient records across different systems is a necessary pre-requisite for accessing external patient data. Using the link element, systems associate patient resources from different organizations. The assuranceLevel associated with the link provides a way for a system to qualify its confidence in the asserted link . For example, a relationship from the person to a patient using a probabilistic matching algorithm may be represented using a link with an assurance level of level1, while a relationship established using a government-issued photo ID may be created with an assurance level of level3.

Similarly, providers working in multiple healthcare service settings may be linked across different organizations using the link element. The various practitioner resources can be related using a common person resource with a link for each of the practitioner resources located in other organizations.

Many national and state programs maintain a central register of people, and their key Identifiers. These systems do not store any health related information, they are purely a validated set data, often provided by government departments. These may contain identifiers for patients, practitioners from various departments for various purposes. Access to these systems typically requires some form of professional role or permission, such as those in healthcare, law enforcement, or other internal government uses.

These may also operate outside of government in the private sector, such as associations or networks that a person may be involved with and may work in the same was as they do inside government. The usage of the data into the healthcare environment is not the only use of the register.

Note: This style of system may use the Person resource without any FHIR references to Patient or Practitioner resources. In these environments the Master Index is likely to have a master identifier that performs this logical linking.
This style of usage has fewer security implications, as it doesn’t disclose where the information is being used.

Client Portals provide consumer access to a window of their data locked up in healthcare systems. In many cases these systems are externally integrated and do not have access to the legacy CIS/PAS systems.

In contrast to most systems where a user has access to multiple patients depending on their roles and permissions, a client portal provides a consumer with direct access to their data (with permissions applied). This can also include not just their data (via the Person.link Patient entries), but also to information that they have entered, or were involved with (via the Person.link RelatedPerson entries), such as observations that they entered.
With appropriate permissions/consent applied, the user could have access to other Patient records linked via a RelatedPerson.

The Person resource may contain identifying and demographic information about an individual, therefore it must be protected as Identifying Information.

The Person resource may contain references to the individual's other various Patient, Practitioner, and RelatedPerson resources, where the referenced record might be to very sensitive information. The access to the linked sensitive Resource may be protected, but the link itself may expose information.
For example where a Practitioner and Patient resource are linked through a Person resource, inspecting the Patient URL could reveal that the Practitioner has a record at a sensitive medical health clinic (e.g. Drug Rehabilitation Clinic).

When implementing the Person resource consideration should be given to the security and privacy of this information. Some mitigations to these risks include higher access control protections, filling out the Person resource as sparsely as practical for the given use-cases, and masking some data elements for certain users of the information. Additional security guidance can be found on the security page .

Search parameters for this resource. The common parameters also apply. See Searching for more information about searching in REST, messaging, and services.

Name Type Description Expression In Common
address string A server defined search that may match any of the string fields in the Address, including line, city, district, state, country, postalCode, and/or text Person.address 3 Resources
address-city string A city specified in an address Person.address.city 3 Resources
address-country string A country specified in an address Person.address.country 3 Resources
address-postalcode string A postal code specified in an address Person.address.postalCode 3 Resources
address-state string A state specified in an address Person.address.state 3 Resources
address-use token A use code specified in an address Person.address.use 3 Resources
birthdate date The person's date of birth Person.birthDate 2 Resources
email token A value in an email contact Person.telecom.where(system='email') 4 Resources
gender token The gender of the person Person.gender 3 Resources
identifier token A person Identifier Person.identifier
link reference Any link has this Patient, Person, RelatedPerson or Practitioner reference Person.link.target
( Practitioner , Patient , Person , RelatedPerson )
name string A server defined search that may match any of the string fields in the HumanName, including family, give, prefix, suffix, suffix, and/or text Person.name
organization reference The organization at which this person record is being managed Person.managingOrganization
( Organization )
patient reference The Person links to this Patient Person.link.target Person.link.target.where(resolve() is Patient)
( Patient )
phone token A value in a phone contact Person.telecom.where(system='phone') 4 Resources
phonetic string A portion of name using some kind of phonetic matching algorithm Person.name 3 Resources
practitioner reference The Person links to this Practitioner Person.link.target Person.link.target.where(resolve() is Practitioner)
( Practitioner )
relatedperson reference The Person links to this RelatedPerson Person.link.target Person.link.target.where(resolve() is RelatedPerson)
( RelatedPerson )
telecom token The value in any kind of contact Person.telecom 4 Resources