W3C

Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) Version 2.0

W3C Working Draft 23 Recommendation 29 October 2012 2013

This version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-its20-20121023/ http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-its20-20131029/
Latest version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/its20/
Previous version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-its20-20120829/ http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-its20-20130924/
Editors:
David Filip, University of Limerick
Shaun McCane, McCance, Invited Expert
Dave Lewis, TCD
Christian Lieske, SAP AG
Arle Lommel, DFKI
Jirka Kosek, UEP
Felix Sasaki, DFKI / W3C Fellow
Yves Savourel, ENLASO

Please refer to the errata for this document, which may include some normative corrections.

See also translations .

This document is also available in these non-normative formats: ODD/XML document , self-contained zipped archive , XHTML Diff markup to ITS 1.0 Recommendation 3 April 2007 , XHTML Diff markup to publication from 26 June 2012 , XHTML Diff markup to publication from 31 July 2012 , and XHTML Diff markup to previous publication from 29 August July 2012 2013-09-24 .


Abstract

This The technology described in this document defines data categories and their implementation as a set of elements and attributes called the Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) 2.0. ITS 2.0 is “ enhances the successor foundation to integrate automated processing of human language into core Web technologies. ITS 2.0 bears many commonalities with its predecessor, ITS 1.0 ; it is but provides additional concepts that are designed to foster the automated creation and processing of multilingual Web content, focusing content. ITS 2.0 focuses on HTML5, XML based HTML, XML-based formats in general, and to can leverage localization workflows processing based on the XML Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF). In addition to using ITS 2.0 for HTML5 and XML content, an algorithm to convert that content to NIF is provided. (XLIFF), as well as the Natural Language Processing Interchange Format (NIF).

Status of this Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This The technology described in this document defines data categories and their implementation as a set of elements and attributes called the Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) 2.0 2.0. “ enhances the foundation to integrate automated processing of human language into core Web technologies. ITS 2.0 bears many commonalities with is the successor of predecessor, ITS 1.0 ; it is but provides additional concepts that are designed to foster the automated creation and processing of multilingual Web content, focusing content. ITS 2.0 focuses on HTML5, XML based HTML, XML-based formats in general, and to can leverage localization workflows processing based on the XML Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF). In addition to using ITS 2.0 for HTML5 and XML content, an algorithm to convert that content to NIF is provided. (XLIFF), as well as the Natural Language Processing Interchange Format (NIF).

This document is an updated Public Working Draft was published by the MultilingualWeb-LT Working Group , part of the as a W3C Internationalization Activity . The Working Group expects to advance this Working Draft to Recommendation status (see W3C document maturity levels ). The Working Group has completed and approved this specification's Test Suite and created an Implementation Report that shows that two or more independent implementations pass each test.

A list of major changes since

This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is endorsed by the previous publication Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is available. This working draft a stable document and may be used as reference material or cited from another document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is planned to be draw attention to the last ordinary working draft before moving specification and to last call. Hence we encourage wide feedback from outside promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the working group. functionality and interoperability of the Web.

Feedback about The ITS 2.0 specification has a normative dependency on the content of this document is encouraged. See also issues discussed within HTML5 specification: it relies on the Working Group . Send your comments to public-multilingualweb-lt-comments@w3.org HTML5 Translate attribute . Use "Comment on By publishing this Recommendation, W3C expects that the functionality specified in this ITS 2.0 Recommendation will not be affected by changes to HTML5 as that specification WD" in the subject line of your email. proceeds to Recommendation.

If you wish to make comments, please send them to public-i18n-its-ig@w3.org . The archives for this list are publicly available. Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by See also issues discussed within the W3C Membership. This is a draft document MultilingualWeb-LT Working Group and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress. the list of changes since the previous publication.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy . W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy .

Table of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Relation to ITS 1.0 and New Principles 1.1.1 Relation to ITS 1.0 1.1.2 New Principles Overview
1.3 Users and Usages of ITS 1.3.1 Potential Users of ITS 1.3.2 Ways to Use ITS Usage Scenarios
1.4 Usage in HTML5 1.4.1 Support for legacy HTML content High-level differences between ITS 1.0 and ITS 2.0
1.5 Out of Scope 1.6 Important Design Principles Extended implementation hints
8 Description of Data Categories
6.2 8.2 Translate
6.2.1 8.2.1 Definition
6.2.2 8.2.2 Implementation
6.4 8.4 Terminology
6.4.1 8.4.1 Definition
6.4.2 8.4.2 Implementation
6.5 8.5 Directionality
6.5.1 8.5.1 Definition
6.5.2 8.5.2 Implementation
6.6 Ruby 6.6.1 Definition 6.6.2 Implementation 6.7 8.6 Language Information
6.7.1 8.6.1 Definition
6.7.2 8.6.2 Implementation
6.9 8.8 Domain
6.9.1 8.8.1 Definition
6.9.2 8.8.2 Implementation
6.10 Disambiguation 8.9 Text Analysis
6.10.1 8.9.1 Definition
6.10.2 8.9.2 Implementation
6.11 8.10 Locale Filter
6.11.1 8.10.1 Definition
6.11.2 8.10.2 Implementation
6.12 Translation Agent 8.11 Provenance
6.12.1 8.11.1 Definition
6.12.2 8.11.2 Implementation
6.13 TextAnalyisAnnotation 6.14 8.12 External Resource
6.14.1 8.12.1 Definition
6.14.2 8.12.2 Implementation
6.15 8.13 Target Pointer
6.15.1 8.13.1 Definition
6.15.2 8.13.2 Implementation
6.16 8.14 Id ID Value
6.16.1 8.14.1 Definition
6.16.2 8.14.2 Implementation
6.17 8.15 Preserve Space
6.17.1 8.15.1 Definition
6.17.2 8.15.2 Implementation
6.20 8.18 MT Confidence
6.20.1 8.18.1 Definition
6.20.2 8.18.2 Implementation
6.21 8.19 Allowed Characters
6.21.1 8.19.1 Definition
6.21.2 8.19.2 Implementation
6.22 8.20 Storage Size
6.22.1 8.20.1 Definition
6.22.2 8.20.2 Implementation
7 Using ITS Markup in HTML5 7.1 Mapping of Local Data Categories to HTML5 7.2 External Rules 7.3 Inline Global Rules in HTML5 7.4 Precedence between Selections 8 Using ITS Markup in XHTML

Appendices

A References
B Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) MIME Type
C Values for the Localization Quality Issue Type
C References (Non-Normative) D Schemas for ITS (Non-Normative)
E Checking ITS Markup Constraints With Schematron Informative References (Non-Normative)
F Checking ITS Markup with NVDL Conversion to NIF (Non-Normative)
G Conversion NIF2ITS (Non-Normative)
H Localization Quality Guidance
I List of ITS 2.0 Global Elements and Local Attributes
J Revision Log (Non-Normative)
I K Acknowledgements (Non-Normative)

Go to the table of contents. 1 Introduction

This section is informative.

ITS 2.0 is a technology to add metadata to Web content, for the benefit of localization, language technologies, and internationalization. The ITS 2.0 specification both identifies concepts (such as “Translate”) that are important for internationalization and localization, and defines implementations of these concepts (termed “ITS data categories”) as a set of elements and attributes called the Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) . The document provides implementations for HTML5, serializations in NIF , and provides definitions of ITS elements and attributes in the form of XML Schema [XML Schema] and RELAX NG [RELAX NG] . This document aims to realize many of the ideas formulated in the ITS 2.0 Requirements document , in [ITS REQ] and [Localizable DTDs] . Not all requirements listed there are addressed in this document. Those which are not addressed here are either covered in [XML i18n BP] (potentially in an as yet unwritten best practice document on multilingual Web content), or may be addressed in a future version of this specification.

Go to the table of contents. 1.1 Relation to ITS 1.0 and New Principles 1.1.1 Relation to ITS 1.0 ITS 2.0 has the following relations to ITS 1.0: It adopts and maintains the following principles from ITS 1.0: It adopts the use of data categories to define discrete units of functionality It adopts the separation of data category definition from the mapping of the data category to a given content format It adopts the conformance principle of ITS1.0 that an implementation only needs to implement one data category to claim conformance to ITS 2.0 ITS 2.0 supports all ITS 1.0 data category definitions and adds new definitions. ITS 2.0 adds a number of new data categories not found in ITS 1.0. While ITS 1.0 addressed only XML, ITS 2.0 specifies implementations of data categories in both XML and HTML5. Where ITS 1.0 data categories are implemented in XML, the implementation must be conformant with the ITS 1.0 approach to XML to claim conformance to ITS 2.0. 1.1.2 New Principles ITS 2.0 also adds the following principles and features not found in ITS 1.0: ITS 2.0 data categories are intended to be format neutral, with support for XML, HTML5, and NIF: a data category implementation only needs to support a single content format mapping in order to support a claim of ITS 2.0 conformance. ITS 2.0 provides algorithms to generate NIF out of HTML5 or XML with ITS 2.0 metadata. A global implementation of ITS 2.0 requires at least the XPath version 1.0. Other versions of XPath or other query languages (e.g., CSS selectors) can be expressed via a dedicated queryLanguage attribute. As of the time of this writing, the new data categories included in ITS 2.0 are: [Ed. note: Below needs to be updated before each publication before last call.] Domain Disambiguation Locale Filter Translation Agent Provenance Text Analysis Annotation External Resource Target Pointer Id Value Preserve Space Localization Quality Issue Localization Quality Précis MT Confidence Allowed Characters Storage Size 1.2 Motivation for ITS Overview

Content or software that is authored in one language (the (so-called source language ) language) for one locale (e.g. the French-speaking part of Canada) is often made available in additional languages or adapted with regard to other cultural aspects. This is done through a process called A prevailing paradigm for multilingual production in many cases encompasses three phases: internationalization, translation, and localization , where (see the W3C's Internationalization Q&A for more information related to these concepts).

From the viewpoints of feasibility, cost, and efficiency, it is important that the original material is translated suitable for downstream phases such as translation. This is achieved by appropriate design and adapted development. The corresponding phase is referred to the target audience. In addition, document formats expressed by schemas as internationalization. A proprietary XML vocabulary may be used internationalized by people defining special markup to specify directionality in different parts of mixed direction text.

During the world, translation phase, the meaning of a source language text is analyzed, and these people a target language text that is equivalent in meaning is determined. For example national or international laws may need regulate linguistic dimensions like mandatory terminology or standard phrases in order to promote or ensure a translation's fidelity.

Although an agreed-upon definition of the localization phase is missing, this phase is usually seen as encompassing activities such as creating locale-specific content (e.g. adding a link for a country-specific reseller), or modifying functionality (e.g. to establish a fit with country-specific regulations for financial reporting). Sometimes, the insertion of special markup to support the a local language or script. script is also subsumed under the localization phase. For example, people authoring in languages such as Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Persian or Urdu need special markup to specify directionality in mixed direction text.

From The technology described in this document – the viewpoints Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) 2.0 addresses some of feasibility, cost, and efficiency, it is important that the original material should be suitable for localization. This is achieved by appropriate design and development, challenges and the corresponding process is referred opportunities related to as internationalization. For a detailed explanation of the terms “localization” internationalization, translation, and “internationalization”, see [l10n i18n] . [Ed. note: Note: This should refer localization. ITS 2.0 in particular contributes to concepts in the best practice document as well, when ready.] The increasing usage realm of XML as a medium metadata for documentation-related content (e.g. DocBook internationalization, translation, and DITA localization related to core Web technologies such as formats XML. ITS does for writing structured documentation, well suited example assist in production scenarios, in which parts of an XML-based document are to computer hardware be excluded from translation. ITS 2.0 bears many commonalities with its predecessor, ITS 1.0 but provides additional concepts that are designed to foster enhanced automated processing – e.g. based on language technology such as entity recognition – related to multilingual Web content.

Like ITS 1.0, ITS 2.0 both identifies concepts (such as “Translate” ), and software manuals) defines implementations of these concepts (termed “ITS data categories”) as a set of elements and software-related content (e.g. attributes called the eXtensible User Interface Language [XUL] ) creates challenges Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) . The definitions of ITS elements and opportunities attributes are provided in the domain form of XML internationalization RELAX NG [RELAX NG] (normative). Since one major step from ITS 1.0 to ITS 2.0 relates to coverage for HTML, ITS 2.0 also establishes a relationship between ITS markup and localization. the various HTML flavors. Furthermore, ITS 2.0 suggests when and how to leverage processing based on the XML Localization Interchange File Format ( [XLIFF 1.2] and [XLIFF 2.0] 1.2.1 Typical Problems The following examples sketch one of ), as well as the issues that currently hinder efficient XML-related localization: Natural Language Processing Interchange Format [NIF] .

For the lack purpose of an introductory illustration, here is a standard, declarative mechanism series of examples related to the question, how ITS can indicate that identifies which certain parts of an XML a document need to be translated. Tools often cannot automatically perform this identification. are not intended for translation.

Example 1: Document with partially translatable in which some content has to be left untranslated

In this document it is difficult to distinguish between those string elements that are translatable intended for translation and those that are not. Only the addition of an explicit flag could not to be translated. Explicit metadata is needed to resolve the issue.

<resources>
  <section id="Homepage">
    <arguments>
      <string>page</string>
      <string>childlist</string>
    </arguments>
    <variables>
      <string>POLICY</string>
      <string>Corporate Policy</string>
    </variables>
    <keyvalue_pairs>
      <string>Page</string>
      <string>ABC Corporation - Policy Repository</string>
      <string>Footer_Last</string>
      <string>Pages</string>
      <string>bgColor</string>
      <string>NavajoWhite</string>
      <string>title</string>
      <string>List of Available Policies</string>
    </keyvalue_pairs>
  </section>
</resources>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-motivation-its-1.xml ]

ITS proposes several mechanisms, which differ among others in terms of the usage scenario/user types for which the mechanism is most suitable.

Example 2: Document with partially translatable content that uses two different ITS mechanisms to indicate that some parts have to be left untranslated.

Even when metadata are available ITS provides two mechanisms to identify non-translatable text, the conditions may be quite complex and not directly indicated explicitly associate metadata with one or more pieces of content (e.g. XML nodes): a simple flag. global , rule-based approach as well as a local , attribute-based approached. Here, for instance, a translateRule first specifies that only the text in the nodes matching the expression every second element inside //component[@type!='image']/data[@type='text'] keyvalue_pairs is translatable. intended for translation; later, an ITS translate attribute specifies that one of these elements is not to be translated.

"color: #000096"><dialogue <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">xml:lang=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"en-gb"<strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"><resources xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0"
"color: #000096">>
  "color: #000096"><rsrc <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">id=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"123"<strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"><its:rules version="2.0"
"color: #000096">>
    "color: #000096"><component <span class="hl-attribute"

"color: #000096"><its:translateRule selector="//arguments" translate="no"/>
    
"color: #000096"><its:translateRule selector="//keyvalue_pairs/string[(position() mod 2)=1]" translate="no"/>
  
"color: #000096"></its:rules>
  
"color: #000096"><section 
style="color: #F5844C">id="color: #993300">"456" <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"image"<strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #993300">"Homepage"
"color: #000096">>
    "color: #000096"><arguments>

      "color: #000096"><data <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"text"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>images/cancel.gif<strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></data>

"color: #000096"><string>page</string>

      "color: #000096"><data <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"coordinates"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>12,20,50,14<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"></data>

"color: #000096"><string>childlist</string>

    "color: #000096"></component>

"color: #000096"></arguments>

    "color: #000096"><component <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">id=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"789" <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"caption"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>

"color: #000096"><variables>

      "color: #000096"><data <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"text"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>Cancel<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></data>

"color: #000096"><string its:translate="no">POLICY</string>

      "color: #000096"><data <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"coordinates"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>12,34,50,14<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"></data>

"color: #000096"><string>Corporate Policy</string>

    "color: #000096"></component>

"color: #000096"></variables>

    "color: #000096"><component <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">id=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"792" <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"string"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>

"color: #000096"><keyvalue_pairs>

      "color: #000096"><data <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"text"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>Number of files: <strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></data>

"color: #000096"><string>Page</string>
      
"color: #000096"><string>ABC Corporation - Policy Repository</string>
      
"color: #000096"><string>Footer_Last</string>
      
"color: #000096"><string>Pages</string>
      
"color: #000096"><string>bgColor</string>
      
"color: #000096"><string its:translate='no'>NavajoWhite</string>
      
"color: #000096"><string>title</string>
      
"color: #000096"><string>List of Available Policies</string>

    "color: #000096"></component>

"color: #000096"></keyvalue_pairs>

  "color: #000096"></rsrc>

"color: #000096"></section>

"color: #000096"></dialogue>

"color: #000096"></resources>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-motivation-its-2.xml ]

Go to the table of contents. 1.3 Users and Usages of 1.2 General motivation for going beyond ITS 1.0

1.3.1 Potential Users of ITS

The ITS specification aims to provide different types of users with information about what markup should be supported to enable worldwide use and effective internationalization and localization of content. The following paragraphs sketch these different types of users, and their usage of ITS. In order to support all basics of these users, the information about what markup should be supported ITS 1.0 are simple:

  1. Provide metadata (e.g. “Do not translate”) to enable worldwide use and effective localization of content is provided in this specification in two ways: assist internationalization-related processes

  2. abstractly in Use XPath (so-called global approach ) to associate metadata with specific XML nodes (e.g. all elements named uitext ) or put the data category descriptions: Section 6: Description of Data Categories metadata straight onto the XML nodes themselves (so-called local approach )

  3. concretely in Work with a well-defined set of metadata categories or values (e.g. only the ITS schemas: Appendix D: Schemas values "yes" and "no" for ITS certain data categories)

  4. 1.3.1.1Schema developers starting a schema from the ground
  5. Take advantage of existing metadata (e.g. terms already marked up with HTML markup such as dt )

This type conciseness made real-world deployment of user will find proposals for attribute and element names to be included in their new schema (also called "host vocabulary"). Using the attribute and element names proposed in the ITS specification may be helpful because it leads 1.0 easy. The deployments helped to easier recognition of the concepts represented by both schema users and processors. It is perfectly possible, however, identify additional metadata categories for internationalization-related processes. The ITS Interest Group for example compiled a schema developer to develop his own set list of attribute additional data categories (see this related summary ). Some of these were then defined in ITS 2.0: ID Value , local Elements Within Text , Preserve Space , and element names. Locale Filter . Others are still discussed as requirements for possible future versions of ITS:

  1. “Context” = What specific related information might be helpful?

  2. “Automated Language” = Does this content lend itself to automatic processing?

The specification sets out, first and foremost, real-world deployments also helped to ensure understand that for the required markup is available, and that Open Web Platform the behavior ITS 1.0 restriction to XML was an obstacle for quite a number of that markup meets established needs. environments. What was missing was, for example, the following:

1.3.1.2Schema developers working with an existing schema
  1. This type Applicability of user will be working with schemas such as DocBook, DITA, or perhaps a proprietary schema. The ITS Working Group has sought input from experts developing widely used to formats such as the ones mentioned. Note: HTML in general, and HTML5 in particular

  2. The question "How to Easy use of ITS with existing popular markup schemes?" is covered in more details (including examples) various Web-exposed (multilingual) Natural Language Processing contexts

  3. Computer-supported linguistic quality assurance

  4. Content Management and translation platforms

  5. Cross-language scenarios

  6. Content enrichment

  7. Support for W3C provenance [PROV-DM] , “information about entities, activities, and people involved in producing a separate document: [XML i18n BP] . piece of data or thing, which can be used to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness”

  8. Developers working on existing schemas should check whether their schemas support the markup proposed Provisions for extended deployment in this specification, and, where appropriate, add the markup proposed here to their schema. Semantic Web/Linked Open Data scenarios

In some cases, ITS 2.0 was created by an existing schema may already contain markup equivalent to that recommended alliance of stakeholders who are involved in ITS. In this case it is not necessary to add duplicate markup since ITS provides mechanisms content for associating global use. Thus, ITS markup 2.0 was developed with markup in the host vocabulary which serves input from/with a similar purpose (see Section 5.6: Associating ITS Data Categories with Existing Markup ). The developer should, however, check that the behavior associated with the markup in their own schema is fully compatible with view towards the expectations described in this specification. following:

1.3.1.3Vendors of content-related tools
  • This type Providers of user includes companies which provide tools for authoring, content management and machine translation solutions who want to easily integrate for efficient content updates in multilingual production chains

  • Language technology providers who want to automatically enrich content (e.g. via term candidate generation, entity recognition or other flavors of content-related software solutions. It is important disambiguation) in order to ensure facilitate human translation

  • Open standards endeavours (e.g. related to [XLIFF 1.2] , [XLIFF 2.0] and [NIF] ) that such tools enable worldwide use are interested for example in information sharing, and effective lossless roundtrip of metadata in localization workflows

One example outcome of content. For example, translation tools should prevent content marked up as not for translation from being changed or translated. It the resulting synergies is hoped that the ITS specification will make Tool Annotation mechanism. It addresses the job of vendors easier provenance-related requirement by standardizing allowing ITS processors to leave a trace: ITS processors can basically say “It is me that generated this bit of information”. Another example are the format and processing expectations [NIF] related details of certain relevant markup items, and allowing them ITS 2.0, which provide a non-normative approach to more effectively identify how content should be handled. couple Natural Language Processing with concepts of the Semantic Web.

Go to the table of contents. 1.3.1.4Content producers 1.3 Usage Scenarios

This type of user comprises authors, translators and other types of content author. The markup proposed in this specification may be used by them [ITS 1.0] introduction states: “ITS is a technology to mark up specific bits of content. Aside: The burden of inserting markup easily create XML, which is internationalized and can be removed from content producers by relating the localized effectively”. In order to make this tangible, ITS 1.0 provided examples for users and usages . Implicitly, these examples carried the information that ITS covers two areas: one that is related to relevant bits the static dimension of mono-lingual content, and one that is related to the dynamic dimension of multilingual production.

  • Static mono-lingual (for example, the area of content in a global manner (see global, rule-based approach ). authors): This global work, however, may fall to information architects, rather than part of the content producers themselves. has the directionality “right-to-left”.

    1.3.1.5Machine Translation Systems
  • This type Dynamic multilingual: (for example, the area of service is intended for a broad user community ranging from developers and integrators through translation companies and agencies, freelance translators and post-editors to ordinary machine translation consumers and other types systems): This part of MT employment. Data categories are envisaged for supporting and guiding the different automated backend processes of this service type, thereby adding substantial value content has to the service results as well as be left untranslated.

Although ITS 1.0 made no assumptions about possible subsequent services. These processes include basic tasks, like parsing constraints and markup, and compositional tasks, such as disambiguation. These tasks consume and generate valuable metadata from and phases in a multilingual production process chain, it was slanted towards a simple three phase “write→internationalize→translate” model. Even a birds-eye-view at ITS 2.0 shows that ITS 2.0 explicitly targets a much more comprehensive model for third party users, multilingual content production. The model comprises support for example, provenance information and quality scoring, and add relevant information multilingual content production phases such as:

  • Internationalization

  • Pre-production (e.g. related to marking terminology)

  • Automated content enrichment (e.g. automatic hyperlinking for follow-on tasks, processes and services, entities)

  • Extraction/filtering of translation-relevant content

  • Segmentation

  • Leveraging (e.g. of existing translation-related assets such as MT post-editing, MT training and MT terminological enhancement. translation memories)

    1.3.1.6Text Analytics
  • These types Machine Translation (e.g. geared towards a specific domain)

  • Quality assessment or control of users fulfil the role source language or target language content

  • Generation of providing services translation kits (e.g. packages based on XLIFF)

  • Post-production

  • Publishing

The document [MLW US IMPL] lists a large variety of usage scenarios for automatic generation ITS 2.0. Most of metadata them are composed from the aforementioned phases.

In a similar vein, ITS 2.0 takes a much more comprehensive view on the actors that may participate in a multilingual content production process. ITS 1.0 annotations (e.g. local markup for improving localization, the Terminology data integration or knowledge management workflows. This class of users comprises of developers and integrators category) most of services that automate language technology tasks the time were conceived as being closely tied to human actors such as domain classification, named entity recognition and disambiguation, term extraction, language identification and others. Text analytics services generate data that contextualizes the raw content with more explicit information. This can be used to improve the output quality in machine translation systems, search result relevance in authors or information retrieval systems, as well architects. ITS 2.0 raises non-human actors such as word processors/editors, content management and integration systems, machine translation systems, term candidate generators, entity identifiers/disambiguators to the same level. This change among others is reflected by the ITS 2.0 Tool Annotation , which allows systems to record that they have processed a certain part of unstructured data in knowledge management systems. content.

Go to the table of contents. 1.3.2 Ways to Use 1.4 High-level differences between ITS 1.0 and ITS 2.0

The differences between ITS specification proposes several mechanisms for supporting worldwide use and effective internationalization 1.0 and localization of content. We will sketch them below by looking at them from the perspectives of certain user types. For the purpose of illustration, we will demonstrate how ITS 2.0 can indicate that certain parts of content should or should not be translated. summarized as follows.

A content author uses an attribute on a particular element Coverage of [HTML5] : ITS 1.0 can be applied to say that XML content. ITS 2.0 extends the text coverage to [HTML5] . Explanatory details about ITS 2.0 and [HTML5] are given in the element should not be translated. Section 2.5: Specific HTML support .

Example 3: Use Addition of data categories : ITS by content author The its:translate="no" attributes indicate that the path 2.0 provides additional data categories and the cmd elements should not be translated. modifies existing ones. A summary of all ITS 2.0 data categories is given in Section 2.1: Data Categories .

<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><help <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:version=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><title>Building the Zebulon Toolkit<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></title> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><p>To re-compile all the modules of the Zebulon toolkit you need to go in the <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"><path <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">its:translate=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"no"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">>\Zebulon\Current Source\binary<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></path> directory. Then from there, run batch file <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><cmd <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">its:translate=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"no"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">>Build.bat<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></cmd>.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></p> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></help>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-1.xml ] Modification of data categories :

  • A content author or information architect uses markup

    ITS 1.0 provided the Ruby data category . ITS 2.0 does not provide ruby because at the top time of writing the document to identify a particular type of element or context ruby model in which HTML5 was still under development. Once these discussions are settled, the content should not Ruby data category possibly will be translated. reintroduced, in a subsequent version of ITS.

  • Example 4: Use of ITS by information architect
  • The translateRule element Directionality data category reflects directionality markup in [HTML 4.01] . The reason is used that enhancements are being discussed in the header context of HTML5 that are expected to change the document approach to indicate marking up directionality, in particular to support content whose directionality needs to be isolated from that none of the path or cmd elements should surrounding content. However, these enhancements are not finalized yet. They will be translated. reflected in a future revision of ITS.

    <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><help <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:version=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><title>Building the Zebulon Toolkit<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></title> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translateRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"//path | //cmd" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">translate=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"no"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><p>To re-compile all the modules of the Zebulon toolkit you need to go in the <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><path>\Zebulon\Current Source\binary<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></path> directory. Then from there, run batch file <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><cmd>Build.bat<strong class= "hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></cmd>.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></p> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></help>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-2.xml ] Additional or modified mechanisms: The following mechanisms from ITS 1.0 have been modified or added to ITS 2.0:

  • A processor may insert markup at the top of

    ITS 1.0 used only XPath as the document which links to mechanism for selecting nodes in global rules . ITS information outside of 2.0 allows for choosing the document. Example 5: Use query language of selectors . The default is XPath 1.0. An ITS by 2.0 processor A rules element is inserted in the header of the document. It has a XLink href attribute used to link free to an ITS external rule document. <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><help <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:version=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><title>Building the Zebulon Toolkit<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></title> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xmlns:xlink=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" <span class= "hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xlink:href=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"EX-ways-to-use-its-4.xml"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><p>To re-compile all the modules of the Zebulon toolkit you need to go in the <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><path>\Zebulon\Current Source\binary<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></path> directory. Then from there, run batch file <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><cmd>Build.bat<strong class= "hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></cmd>.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></p> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></help> [Source file: examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-3.xml ] support other selection mechanisms, like CSS selectors or other versions of XPath.

    Example 6: ITS rule file shared by different documents The rules element contains several ITS
  • In global rules that are common to different documents. One of them it is a translateRule element that indicates that no path or cmd now possible to set variables for the selectors (XPath expression). The param element should be translated. <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translateRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"//path | //cmd" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">translate=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"no"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules> [Source file: examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-4.xml ] serves this purpose.

  • A schema developer integrates ITS markup declarations in his schema to allow users 2.0 has an ITS Tools Annotation mechanism to indicate that specific parts of associate processor information with the content should not be translated. use of individual data categories. See Section 2.6: Traceability for details.

[Ed. note: Following schema example has

Mappings: ITS 2.0 provides a non-normative algorithm to updated once we have final XSD schema for convert ITS 2.0] 2.0 information into [NIF] Example 7: An XSD schema with ITS declaration The declarations for the translate attribute is added and links to a group of common attributes commonAtts . This allows guidance about how to use the translate attribute within the documents like in Example 3 . <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:schema <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:xs=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">elementFormDefault=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"qualified"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:import <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">namespace=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">schemaLocation=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"its.xsd"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:attributeGroup <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"commonAtts"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:attributeGroup <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"its:att.local.with-ns.attribute.translate"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:attribute <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"id" <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"xs:ID" <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">use=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"optional"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:attributeGroup> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:element <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"help"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:complexType> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:sequence> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:element <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"head"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:complexType> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:sequence> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:element <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"title" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"xs:string"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:sequence> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:attributeGroup <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"commonAtts"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:complexType> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:element> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:element <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"body"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:complexType> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:choice <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">minOccurs=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"1" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">maxOccurs=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"unbounded"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:element <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"p"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:complexType <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">mixed=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"true"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:choice <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">minOccurs=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"0" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">maxOccurs=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"unbounded"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:element <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"path"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:element <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"cmd"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:choice> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:attributeGroup <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"commonAtts"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:complexType> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:element> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:choice> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:complexType> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:element> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:sequence> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:attributeGroup <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"its:att.version.attribute.version"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:complexType> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:element> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:element <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"path"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:complexType <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">mixed=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"true"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:attributeGroup <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"commonAtts"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:complexType> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:element> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:element <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"cmd"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:complexType <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">mixed=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"true"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><xs:attributeGroup <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"commonAtts"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:complexType> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:element> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></xs:schema> [Source file: examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-5.xsd relate ITS 2.0 to XLIFF. See Section 2.7: Mapping and conversion ] for details.

The first two approaches above can be likened Changes to the use of CSS in [XHTML 1.0] . Using a style attribute, an XHTML content author may assign a color conformance section : The Section 4: Conformance tells implementers how to a particular paragraph. That author could also have used the style element at the top of implement ITS. For ITS 2.0, the page conformance statements related to say that all paragraphs of Ruby have been removed. For [HTML5] , a particular class or in dedicated conformance section has been created. Finally, a particular context would be colored red. conformance clause related to Non-ITS elements and attributes has been added.

Go to the table of contents. 1.4 Usage in HTML5 1.5 Extended implementation hints

As a general guidance, implementations of ITS 2.0 adds support for usage in HTML5. In HTML5, ITS local selection is realized via dedicated, data category specific attributes . [Ed. note: Add example of HTML5 with local attributes for illustartion purposes] For the so-called “ global approach ” in HTML5, this specification defines a link type for referring are encouraged to files with global rules in Section 7.2: External Rules use a normalizing transcoder . Example 8: Using ITS global rules in HTML5 The link element points It converts from a legacy encoding to a Unicode encoding form and ensures that the rules file EX-translateRule-html5-1.xml The rel attribute identifies result is in Unicode Normalization Form C. Further information on the ITS specific link relation its-rules . <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><meta <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">charset=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">utf-8<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><title>Translate flag global rules example<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></title> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><link <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">href=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">EX-translateRule-html5-1.xml <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">rel=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">its-rules<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><p>This sentence should be translated, but code names like the <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"><code>span<strong class= "hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></code> element should not be translated.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></p> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></html> [Source file: examples/html5/EX-translate-html5-global-1.html ] Example 9: ITS rules file linked from HTML5 The rules file linked topic of Unicode normalization is provided in Example 8 [Charmod Norm] .

<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xmlns:h=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translateRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">translate=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"no" <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//h:code"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules>
[Source file: examples/html5/EX-translateRule-html5-1.xml ]

Go to the table of contents. 1.4.1 Support for legacy HTML content 2 Basic Concepts

ITS 2.0 does not define how This section is informative.

The purpose of this section is to use provide basic knowledge about how ITS in HTML versions prior version 5. Users are encouraged to migrate their content to HTML5 or XHTML. While it 2.0 works. Detailed knowledge (including formal definitions) is possible to use its-* attributes introduced for HTML5 in older versions of HTML (such as 3.2 or 4.01) and pages using these attributes will work without any problems, its-* attributes will be marked as invalid given in validators. the subsequent sections.

Go to the table of contents. 1.5 Out of Scope 2.1 Data Categories

The definition A key concept of what a localization process or localization parameters must address ITS is outside the scope of this standard and it does not address all abstract notion of the mechanisms or data formats (sometimes called Localization Properties) that may be needed to configure localization workflows or process specific formats. However, it does define standard data categories . Data categories define the information that may can be used in defining localization workflows or processing specific formats. Note: “ XML localization properties ” conveyed via ITS. An example is a generic term to name the mechanisms and Translate data formats that allow localization tools to be configured in order to process a specific XML format. Examples category. It conveys information about translatability of XML localization properties are the Trados “DTD Settings” file, and the SDLX “Analysis” file. content.

Section 8: Description of Data Categories 1.6 Important Design Principles Abstraction via data categories : ITS defines data categories as an abstract notion categories. It also describes their implementation, i.e. ways to use them for information needed example in an XML context. The motivation for separating data category definitions from their implementation is to enable different implementations with the internationalization and localization following characteristics:

  • For various types of XML schemas and documents and HTML5 documents. This abstraction is helpful content (XML in realizing independence from any one particular implementation (e.g., as an element general or attribute). (See Section 3.3: Data category HTML for ).

  • For a definition of the term data categories, Section 6: Description single piece of Data Categories for content, e.g. a p element. This is the definition so-called local approach .

  • For several pieces of the various ITS data categories, and subsections content in Section 6: Description one document or even a set of Data Categories for documents. This is the data category implementations.) so-called global approach .

  • Powerful selection mechanism: For ITS a complete markup that appears in an XML instance, which XML nodes the ITS-related information pertains to must be clearly defined. Thus, vocabulary. This is done by adding ITS defines selection markup declarations mechanisms to specify to what parts of an XML document an the schema for the vocabulary.

ITS data category and its values should be applied. Selection relies on 2.0 provides the following data categories:

  • Translate : expresses information which about whether a selected piece of content is given in the XML Information Set [XML Infoset] . ITS applications may implement inclusion mechanisms intended for translation or not.

  • Localization Note : communicates notes to localizers about a particular item of content.

  • Terminology : marks terms and optionally associates them with information, such as XInclude definitions or DITA's [DITA 1.0] conref. references to a term data base.

  • Content authors, Directionality : specifies the base writing direction of blocks, embeddings and overrides for example, need a simple way to work with the Translate data category in order to express whether Unicode bidirectional algorithm.

  • Language Information : expresses the language of a given piece of content.

  • Elements Within Text: expresses how content of an element or attribute should be translated or not. Localization managers, on the other hand, need an efficient way is related to manage translations of large document sets based on the same schema. These needs could by realized by text flow (constitutes its own segment like paragraphs, is part of a specification segment like emphasis marker etc.).

  • Domain : identifies the topic or subject of defaults for the Translate data category along annotated content for translation-related applications.

  • Text Analysis : annotates content with exceptions to those defaults lexical or conceptual information (e.g. all p elements should be translated, but not p elements inside for the purpose of an index element). contextual disambiguation).

  • To meet these requirements this specification introduces mechanisms Locale Filter : specifies that add ITS information a piece of content is only applicable to XML documents, see Section 5: Processing certain locales.

  • Provenance : communicates the identity of ITS information . These mechanisms also provide a means for specifying ITS information for attributes (a task for which no standard means previously existed). agents that have been involved processing content.

  • The ITS selection mechanisms allows you to provide information about content locally (specified at External Resource : indicates reference points in a resource outside the XML or HTML element document that need to which it pertains) be considered during localization or globally (specified in another part translation. Examples of such resources are external images and audio or video files.

  • Target Pointer : associates the markup node of a given source content (i.e. the document). Global selection mechanisms can content to be in translated) and the markup node of its corresponding target content (i.e. the source content translated into a given target language). This is relevant for formats that hold the same document, or content in different languages inside a separate file. single document.

  • No dedicated extensibility : It may Id Value : identifies a value that can be useful or necessary to extend the set of information available used as unique identifier for internationalization or localization purposes beyond what is provided by ITS. This specification does not define a dedicated extension mechanism, since ordinary XML mechanisms (e.g. XML Namespaces [XML Names] ) may given part of the content.

  • Preserve Space : indicates how whitespace is to be used. handled in content.

  • Ease Localization Quality Issue : describes the nature and severity of integration : an error detected during a language-oriented quality assurance (QA) process.

  • ITS follows the example from section 4 Localization Quality Rating : expresses an overall measurement of [XLink 1.1] , by providing mostly global attributes for the implementation of ITS data categories. Avoiding elements for ITS purposes as much as possible ensures ease localization quality of integration into existing markup schemes, see section 3.14 a document or an item in [ITS REQ] . Only for some requirements do additional child elements have to be used, see for example Section 6.6: Ruby . a document.

  • ITS has no dependency on technologies which are still under development. MT Confidence : indicates the confidence that MT systems provide about their translation.

  • ITS fits with existing work in Allowed Characters : specifies the W3C architecture (e.g. use characters that are permitted in a given piece of [XPath 1.0] for content.

  • Storage Size : specifies the selection mechanism). maximum storage size of a given piece of content.

2 Basic Concepts

This section is informative. Most of the existing ITS 1.0 data categories are included and new ones have been added. Modifications of existing ITS 1.0 data categories are summarized in Section 1.4: High-level differences between ITS 1.0 and ITS 2.0 .

Go to the table of contents. 2.1 2.2 Selection

Information (e.g. "translate this") “translate this”) captured by an ITS markup (e.g. its:translate='yes' ) data category always pertains to one or more XML or HTML nodes (primarily nodes, primarily element and attribute nodes). nodes. In a sense, ITS markup “selects” the relevant node(s). node(s) get “selected”. Selection may be explicit or implicit. ITS distinguishes two approaches to mechanisms for explicit selection: (1) local, local and (2) using global rules. (via rules ). Both local and global approaches can interact with each other, and with additional ITS dimensions such as inheritance and defaults.

The mechanisms defined for ITS selection resemble those defined in [CSS 2.1] . The local approach can be compared to the style attribute in HTML/XHTML, and the approach with global rules approach is similar to the style element in HTML/XHTML. ITS usually uses XPath for identifying nodes although CSS and other query languages can be used if supported by application. Thus, HTML/XHTML:

  • the The local approach puts ITS markup in the relevant element of the host vocabulary (e.g. the author element in DocBook)

  • the rule-based, The global rule-based approach puts the ITS markup in elements defined by ITS itself (namely the rules element)

ITS markup usually uses XPath in rules for identifying nodes although CSS Selectors and other query languages can in addition be implemented by applications.

ITS 2.0 can be used with XML documents (e.g. a DocBook article), or HTML documents, document schemas (e.g. an XML Schema document for a proprietary document format). format), or data models in RDF.

The following two examples sketch provide more details about the distinction between the local and global approaches, approach, using the translate Translate data category as one example of ITS markup. an example.

Go to the table of contents. 2.1.1 2.2.1 Local Approach

The document in Example 10 3 shows how a content author may can use the ITS translate attribute to indicate that all content inside the author element should is not intended for translation (i.e. has to be protected from translation. left untranslated). Translation tools that are aware of the meaning of this the attribute can then screen protect the relevant content from being translated (possibly still allowing translators to see the translation process. protected content as context information).

Example 10: ITS 3: ITS markup on elements in an XML document (local approach)
<article xmlns="color: #993300">"http://docbook.org/ns /docbook"

"color: #993300">"http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"

         xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"
         its:version="2.0" version="5.0" xml:lang="en">
  <info>
    <title>An example article</title>
    <author its:translate="no">
      <personname>
        <firstname>John</firstname>
        <surname>Doe</surname>
      </personname>
      <affiliation>
        <address><email>foo@example.com</email></address>
      </affiliation>
    </author>
  </info>
  <para>This is a short article.</para>
</article>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-basic-concepts-1.xml ]

For this example to work, the local approach (and Example 3 ) to work for a whole markup vocabulary, a schema developer will would need to add the translate attribute to the schema as a common attribute or on all the relevant element definitions. Note how there is an expectation in this case The example indicates that inheritance plays a part in identifying which content does have to be translated and which does not. not: Although only the author element is marked as “do not translate”, its descendants ( personname , firstname , surname ) are considered to be implicitly marked as well. Tools that process this content for translation will need to implement the expected inheritance.

For XML content, the local approach cannot be applied to a particular attribute. If ITS needs to be applied to a particular attribute, the global approach has to be used. The local approach applies to content of the current element and all its inherited nodes as described in Section 8.1: Position, Defaults, Inheritance, and Overriding of Data Categories . For the Translate data category used in [HTML5] , this is different, see the explanation of the HTML5 definition of Translate .

Go to the table of contents. 2.1.2 2.2.2 Global Approach

The document in Example 11 4 shows a different approach to identifying non-translatable content, similar to that used with a style element in [XHTML 1.0] , but using an ITS-defined element called rules . It works as follows: A document can contain a rules element (placed where it does not impact the structure of the document, e.g., in a “head” section). It section, or even outside of the document itself). The rules element contains one or more ITS rule children/rule elements (for example translateRule ). Each of these specific children elements contains a selector attribute. As its name suggests, this attribute selects the node or nodes to which a the corresponding ITS information pertains. The values of ITS selector attributes are XPath absolute location paths (or CSS selectors Selectors if queryLanguage is set to "css"). Via the param element variables can be provided and used in selectors.

Information for the handling of namespaces in these path XPath expressions is taken from namespace declarations [XML Names] at in the current rule element.

Note: Caveat Related to XSLT-based Processing of ITS Selector Attributes The values of ITS selector attributes are XPath absolute location paths. Accordingly, the following is a legitimate value: myElement/descendant-or-self::*/@* Unfortunately, values like this cause trouble when they are used in XSLT-based processing of ITS where the values of the ITS selector attributes are used as values of match attributes of XSLT templates. The reason for this is the following: match attributes may only contain a restriction/subset of XPath expressions, so-called patterns . Basically the following restrictions hold for patterns: only axes "child" or "attribute" allowed "//" or "/" possible id() or key() function possible predicates possible Using only XSLT patterns in ITS selector attributes helps to avoid this issue. In many cases, this is possible by using patterns with predicates. The value above may for example be rewritten as follows: *[self::myElement]/@* | myElement//*/@*
Example 11: ITS 4: ITS global markup in an XML document (rule-based approach)
<myTopic xmlns="http://mynsuri.example.com" id="topic01" xml:lang="en-us">
  <prolog>
    <title>Using ITS</title>
    <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
      <its:translateRule selector="//n:term" translate="no" xmlns:n="http://mynsuri.example.com"/>
    </its:rules>
  </prolog>
  <body>
    <p>ITS defines <term>data category</term> as an abstract concept for a particular type of
      information for internationalization and localization of XML schemas and documents.</p>
  </body>
</myTopic>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-basic-concepts-2.xml ]

For this the global approach (and Example 4 ) to work, the a schema developer needs may need to add the a rules element and associated markup to the schema. In some cases cases, global rules may be sufficient to allow the schema developer to avoid adding and other ITS markup (such as an translate attribute) to attribute on the elements and attributes attributes) may not be needed in the schema. However, it is likely that authors will want to use attributes on markup may need the local approach from time to time to override the general rule.

For specification of the Translate data category information, the contents of the rules translateRule element would normally be designed by an information architect familiar with the document format and familiar with, or working with someone familiar with, the needs of the localization group. localization/translation.

The global, rule-based approach has the following benefits:

  • Content authors do not have to concern themselves with creating additional markup or verifying that the markup was applied correctly. ITS data categories are associated with sets of nodes (for example all p elements in an XML instance)

  • Changes can be made in a single location, rather than by searching and modifying local markup throughout a document (or documents, if the rules element is stored as an external entity)

  • ITS data categories can designate attribute values as (as well as elements. elements)

  • It is possible to associate ITS markup with existing markup (for example the term element in DITA)

The commonality in both examples above is the markup translate='no' . This piece of ITS markup can be interpreted as follows:

  • it pertains to the Translate data category

  • the attribute translate holds a value of "no"

The ITS selector attribute allows: ITS data category attributes to appear in global rules (even outside of an XML document or schema) ITS data categories attributes to pertain to sets of XML nodes (for example all p elements in an XML document) ITS markup to pertain to attributes ITS markup to associate with existing markup (for example the term element in DITA)

Go to the table of contents. 2.2 Overriding and 2.3 Overriding, Inheritance and Defaults

The power of the ITS selection mechanisms comes at a price: rules related to overriding/precedence , and inheritance , have to be established.

The document in Example 12 5 shows how inheritance and overriding work for the Translate data category. By category:

  • The ITS default is that all elements are translatable. Here, the

  • The translateRule element declared in the header overrides the default for the head element inside text and for all its children.

  • Because the title element is actually translatable, the global rule needs to be overridden by a local its:translate="yes" . Note that the global rule is processed first, regardless of its position inside the document.

  • In the main body of the document, document the default applies, and here it is its:translate="no" that is used to set “faux pas” "faux pas" as non-translatable.

Example 12: Overriding 5: Overriding and Inheritance
<text xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  <head>
    <revision>Sep-10-2006 v5</revision>
    <author>Ealasaidh McIan</author>
    <contact>ealasaidh@hogw.ac.uk</contact>
    <title its:translate="yes">The Origins of Modern Novel</title>
    <its:rules version="2.0">
      <its:translateRule translate="no" selector="/text/head"/>
    </its:rules>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div xml:id="intro">
      <head>Introduction</head>
      <p>It would certainly be quite a <span its:translate="no">faux pas</span> to start a
        dissertation on the origin of modern novel without mentioning the <tl>Epic of
        Gilgamesh</tl>...</p>
    </div>
  </body>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-basic-concepts-3.xml ]

For XML content, data category specific defaults are provided. These are independent of the actual XML markup vocabulary. Example for the Translate data category: translate="yes" for elements, and translate="no" for attributes.

For [HTML5] , several HTML5 elements and attributes map exactly to ITS 2.0 data categories. Hence that HTML markup is normatively interpreted as ITS 2.0 data category information (see Section 2.5.3: HTML markup with ITS 2.0 counterparts for more information).

Go to the table of contents. 2.3 2.4 Adding Information or Pointing to Existing Information

For some data categories, special attributes Data categories can add information or point to information about for the selected nodes. For example, the Localization Note data category can add information to selected nodes (using a locNote element), or point to existing information elsewhere in the document (using a locNotePointer attribute).

The functionality data category overview table , in Section 8.1: Position, Defaults, Inheritance, and Overriding of Data Categories , provides an overview of which data categories allow the addition of information and which allow to point to existing information.

Adding information and pointing to existing information are mutually exclusive ; attributes for adding information and attributes for pointing to the selected nodes same information are not allowed to appear at the same rule element.

Go to the table of contents. 2.5 Specific HTML support

For applying ITS 2.0 data categories to HTML, five aspects are of importance:

  1. Global approach in HTML5

  2. Local Approach

  3. HTML markup with ITS 2.0 counterparts

  4. Standoff markup in HTML5

  5. Version of HTML

In the following sections these aspects are briefly discussed.

Go to the table of contents. 2.5.1 Global approach in HTML5

To account for the so-called global approach in HTML, this specification (see Section 6.2: Global rules ) defines:

  • A link type for referring to external files with global rules from a link element.

  • An approach to have inline global rules in the HTML script element.

It is available preferable to use external global rules linked via the link element rather than to have inline global rules in the HTML document. The advantage is in being able to reuse the same rules file for each many documents and also inline rules require secondary parsing of the script element.

Example 6: Using ITS global rules in HTML

The link element points to the rules file EX-translateRule-html5-1.xml The rel attribute identifies the ITS specific link relation its-rules .


"color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html>
<html>  
"color: #000096"><head>
    
"color: #000096"><meta charset=utf-8>
    
"color: #000096"><title>Translate flag global rules example</title>
    
"color: #000096"><link href=EX-translateRule-html5-1.xml rel=its-rules>
  
"color: #000096"></head>
  
"color: #000096"><body>
    
"color: #000096"><p>This sentence should be translated, but code names like
      the <code>span</code> element should not be translated.
      Of course there are always exceptions: certain 
      code values should be translated, e.g. to a value 
      in your language like <code translate=yes>warning</code>.</p>
  
"color: #000096"></body>

"color: #000096"></html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-translate-html5-global-1.html ]

Example 7: ITS rules file linked from HTML

The rules file linked in Example 6 .


"color: #000096"><its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"
           
"color: #F5844C">xmlns:h="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  
"color: #000096"><its:translateRule translate="no" selector="//h:code"/>

"color: #000096"></its:rules>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-translateRule-html5-1.xml ]

Example 8: Using ITS inline global rules in HTML

The script element contains the same rules as the external rules file EX-translateRule-html5-1.xml in the above example .


"color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html>
<html>  
"color: #000096"><head>
    
"color: #000096"><meta charset=utf-8>
    
"color: #000096"><title>Translate flag global rules example</title>
    
"color: #000096"><script type=application/its+xml id=ru1>
      
"color: #000096"><its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"
           
"color: #F5844C">xmlns:h="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
      
"color: #000096"><its:translateRule translate="no" selector="//h:code"/>
    
"color: #000096"></its:rules>
    
"color: #000096"></script>
  
"color: #000096"></head>
  
"color: #000096"><body>
    
"color: #000096"><p>This sentence should be translated, but code names like
      the <code>span</code> element should not be translated.
      Of course there are always exceptions: certain
      code values should be translated, e.g. to a value in
      your language like <code translate=yes>warning</code>.</p>
  
"color: #000096"></body>

"color: #000096"></html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-translate-html5-inline-global-1.html ]

Go to the table of contents. 2.5.2 Local approach

In HTML, an ITS 2.0 local data category except Language Information . Pointing is realized with the prefix its- . The general mapping of the XML based ITS 2.0 attributes to existing their HTML counterparts is defined in Section 6.1: Mapping of Local Data Categories to HTML . An informative table in Appendix I: List of ITS 2.0 Global Elements and Local Attributes provides an overview of the mapping for all data categories.

Go to the table of contents. 2.5.3 HTML markup with ITS 2.0 counterparts

There are four ITS 2.0 data categories, which have counterparts in HTML markup. In these cases, native HTML markup provides some information in terms of ITS 2.0 data categories. For these data categories, ITS 2.0 defines the following:

  • The Language Information data category has the HTML lang attribute as a counterpart. In XHTML the counterpart is not possible the xml:lang attribute. These HTML attributes act as local markup for the Language Information data categories that express category in HTML and take precedence over language information conveyed via a global langRule .

  • The Id Value data category has the HTML or XHTML id attribute as counterpart. This HTML attribute acts as local markup for the Id Value data category in HTML and takes precedence over identifier information conveyed via a global idValueRule .

  • The Elements within Text data category has a closed set of values ; that is: HTML elements (the so-called phrasing content ) as counterpart. In the absence of an Elements within Text local attribute or global rules selecting the element in question, most of the phrasing content elements are interpreted as withinText="yes" by default. The phrasing content elements iframe , noscript , script and textarea are interpreted as withinText="nested" .

  • The Translate data category has a direct counterpart in [HTML5] , Directionality , Locale Filter namely the [HTML5] translate attribute. ITS 2.0 does not define its own behavior for [HTML5] translate , but just refers to the HTML5 definition . That definition also applies to nodes selected via global rules. That is, a translateRule like <its:translateRule selector="//h:img" translate="yes"/> will set the img element and its translatable attributes like alt to "yes".

Example 9: The Language Information , Id Value , Elements Within within Text . [Ed. note: and Translate ITS 2.0 data categories expressed by native HTML markup.

The following statement lang attribute of the html element conveys the Language Information value "en". The id attribute of the p element conveys the Id Value "p1". The elements em and img are interpreted to be withinText="yes" . The p element and its children are set to be non-translatable via an [HTML5] translate attribute. Via inheritance, the alt attribute, normally translatable by default, also is not correct anymore, e.g. Localization Quality Issue, applied globally non-translatable.


"color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html>

"color: #000096"><html lang=en>
  
"color: #000096"><head>
    
"color: #000096"><meta charset=utf-8>
      
"color: #000096"><title>HTML native markup expressing three ITS 2.0 data categories</title>
  
"color: #000096"></head>
  
"color: #000096"><body>
    
"color: #000096"><p id="p1" translate="no">This is a <em>motherboard</em> and image: 
      
"color: #000096"><img src="http://example.com/myimg.png" alt="My image"/>.</p>
  
"color: #000096"></body>

"color: #000096"></html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-its-and-existing-HTML5-markup.html allows for something like ]

There are also some HTML markup elements that have or can have similar, but not necessarily identical, roles and behaviors as certain ITS 2.0 data categories. For example, the HTML locQualityIssuesRef dfn element could be used to identify a term in the sense of the Terminology data category. However, this is not always the case and it depends on the intentions of the HTML content author. To accommodate this situation, users of ITS 2.0 are encouraged to specify the semantics of existing HTML markup in an ITS 2.0 context with a dedicated global rules file. For example, a rule can be used to define that the HTML locQualityIssuesTypePointer dfn at has the same semantics of ITS locQualityIssueRule term="yes" . For additional examples, see the XML I18N Best Practices document.

Go to the table of contents. 2.5.4 Standoff markup in HTML5

The Provenance and the Localization Quality Issue data categories allow for using so-called standoff markup, see the XML Example 58 . In HTML such standoff markup is placed into a script element. Should If this is done, the constraints for Provenance standoff markup in HTML and Localization quality issue markup in HTML need to be changed taken into account. Examples of standoff markup in HTML for the two data categories are Example 61 and Example 76 .

Go to the table of contents. 2.5.5 Version of HTML

ITS 2.0 does not define how to use ITS in HTML versions prior to version 5. Users are thus encouraged to migrate their content to [HTML5] or should XHTML. While it is possible to use its-* attributes introduced for [HTML5] in older versions of HTML (such as 3.2 or 4.01) and pages using these attributes will work without any problems, its-* attributes will be marked as invalid by validators.

Go to the table of contents. 2.6 Traceability

The ITS Tools Annotation mechanism allows processor information to be associated with individual data categories in a document, independently from data category annotations themselves (e.g. the statement Entity Type related to Text Analysis). The mechanism associates identifiers for tools with data categories via the annotatorsRef attribute (or annotators-ref in [HTML5] ) and is mandatory for the MT Confidence data category. For the Terminology and Text Analysis data categories the ITS Tools Annotation is mandatory if the data categories provide confidence information. Nevertheless, ITS Tools Annotation can be dropped?] used for all data categories. Example 23 demonstrates the usage in the context of several data categories.

Go to the table of contents. 2.7 Mapping and conversion

Go to the table of contents. 2.7.1 ITS and RDF/NIF

ITS 2.0 provides a non-normative algorithm to convert XML or HTML documents (or their DOM representations) that contain ITS metadata to the RDF format based on [NIF] . NIF is an RDF/OWL-based format that aims at interoperability between Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools, language resources and annotations.

The functionalities conversion from ITS 2.0 to NIF results in RDF triples. These triples represent the textual content of adding information the original document as RDF typed information. The ITS annotation is represented as properties of content-related triples and pointing relies on an ITS RDF vocabulary .

The back conversion from NIF to existing information ITS 2.0 is defined informatively as well. One motivation for the back conversion is a roundtrip workflow like: 1) conversion to NIF 2) in NIF representation detection of named entities using NLP tools 3) back conversion to HTML and generation of Text Analysis markup. The outcome are mutually exclusive . That HTML documents with linked information, see Example 52 .

Go to the table of contents. 2.7.2 ITS and XLIFF

The XML Localization Interchange File Format [XLIFF 1.2] is an OASIS standard that enables translatable source text and its translation to say, attributes be passed between different tools within localization and translation workflows. [XLIFF 2.0] is the successor of [XLIFF 1.2] and under development. XLIFF has been widely implemented in various translation management systems, computer aided translation tools and in utilities for pointing extracting translatable content from source documents and adding must merging back the content in the target language.

The mapping between ITS and XLIFF therefore underpins several important ITS 2.0 usage scenarios [MLW US IMPL] . These usage scenarios involve:

  • the extraction of ITS metadata from a source language file into XLIFF

  • the addition of ITS metadata into an XLIFF file by translation tools

  • the mapping of ITS metadata in an XLIFF file into ITS metadata in the resulting target language files.

ITS 2.0 has no normative dependency on XLIFF, however a non-normative definition of how to represent ITS 2.0 data categories in XLIFF 1.2 or XLIFF 2.0 is being defined within the Internationalization Tag Set Interest Group .

Go to the table of contents. 2.8 ITS 2.0 Implementations and Conformance

What does it mean to implement ITS 2.0? This specification provides several conformance clauses as the normative answer (see Section 4: Conformance ). The clauses target different types of implementers:

The conformance clauses in Section 4.2: Conformance Type 2: The Processing Expectations for ITS Markup and Section 4.3: Conformance Type 3: Processing Expectations for ITS Markup in HTML clarify how information needs to be made available for given pieces of markup when processing a dedicated ITS 2.0 data category. To allow for flexibility, an implementation can choose whether it wants to support only ITS 2.0 global or local information, or XML or HTML content. These choices are reflected in separate conformance clauses and also in the ITS 2.0 test suite .

ITS 2.0 processing expectations only define which information needs to be made available. They do not appear at define how that information actually is to be used. This is due to the same rule element. fact that there is a wide variety of usage scenarios for ITS 2.0, and a wide variety of tools for working with ITS 2.0 is possible. Each of these tools may have its own way of using ITS 2.0 data categories (see [MLW US IMPL] for more information).

Go to the table of contents. 3 Notation and Terminology

This section is normative.

Go to the table of contents. 3.1 Notation

The keywords “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119] .

The namespace URI that MUST be used by implementations of this specification is:

http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its

The namespace prefix used in this specification for this XML implementations of ITS for the above URI is “its”. its . It is recommended that XML implementations of this specification use this prefix. prefix, unless there is existing dedicated markup in use for a given data category. In HTML there is no namespace prefix: its- is used instead to indicate ITS 2.0 attributes in HTML documents. See Section 6.1: Mapping of Local Data Categories to HTML for details.

In addition, the following namespaces are used in this document:

  • http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema for the XML Schema namespace, here used with the prefix “xs” xs

  • http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0 http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink for the RELAX NG XLink namespace, here used with the prefix “rng” xlink

  • http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml for the XLink HTML namespace, here used with the prefix “xlink” h

Go to the table of contents. 3.2 Schema Language [ Definition : Schema language refers in this specification to an XML-related modeling or validation language such as XML Schema or RELAX NG.] Note: This specification provides schemas in the format of XML Schema and RELAX NG. However, these schemas are only non-normative; conformance for ITS markup declarations defines only mandatory positions of ITS declarations in schemas. This makes it possible to use ITS with any schema language that allows for using these positions. 3.3 3.2 Data category

[ Definition : ITS defines data category as an abstract concept for a particular type of information for internationalization and localization of XML schemas and documents.] The concept of a data category is independent of its implementation in an XML and HTML environment (e.g. (e.g., using an element or attribute).

For each data category, ITS distinguishes between the following:

Example 13: A 10: A data category and its implementation

The Translate data category conveys information as to whether a piece of content should be translated is intended for translation or not.

The simplest formalization of this prose description on a schema language independent language-independent level is a translate attribute with two possible values: "yes" and "no". An implementation on a schema language specific language-specific level would be the declaration of the translate attribute in, for example, an XML Schema document or an a RELAX NG document. A different implementation would be a translateRule element that allows for specifying global rules about the Translate data category.

Go to the table of contents. 3.4 3.3 Selection

[ Definition : selection encompasses mechanisms to specify to what parts of an XML or HTML document an ITS data category and its values should be applied to.] apply.] Selection is discussed in detail in Section 5: Processing of ITS information . Selection can be applied globally, see Section 5.2.1: Global, Rule-based Selection , and locally, see Section 5.2.2: Local Selection in an XML Document . As for global selection, ITS information can be added to the selected nodes, or it can point to existing information which that is related to selected nodes.

Selection relies on the information that is given in the XML Information Set [XML Infoset] . ITS applications MAY implement inclusion mechanisms such as XInclude or DITA's [DITA 1.0] conref.

Note:

The selection of the ITS data categories applies to textual values contained within element or attribute nodes. In some cases these nodes form pointers to other resources; a well-known example is the src attribute on the img element in HTML. The ITS Translate data category applies to the text of the pointer itself, not the object to which it points. Thus in the following example, the translation information specified via the translateRule element applies to the filename "instructions.jpg", and is not an instruction to open the graphic and change the words therein.

Example 14: Selecting 11: Selecting the text of a pointer to an external object
<text>
  <its:rules version="2.0" 
             xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
    <its:translateRule translate="yes" selector="//p/img/@src"/>
  </its:rules>
  ...
  <p xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">As you can see in
    <img src="instructions.jpg"/>, the truth is not always out there.</p>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-notation-terminology-1.xml ]

Go to the table of contents. 3.5 3.4 ITS Local Attributes

[ Definition : ITS Local Attributes are all attributes defined in Section 6: Description 8: Description of Data Categories as a local markup.]

Go to the table of contents. 3.6 3.5 Rule Elements

[ Definition : Rule Elements are all elements defined in Section 6: Description 8: Description of Data Categories as elements for global rules.]

Go to the table of contents. 3.7 3.6 Usage of Internationalized Resource Identifiers in ITS

The All attributes that have the type href , locNoteRef and termInfoRef anyURI which contain resource identifiers in the normative RELAX NG schema in Appendix D: Schemas for ITS MUST allow the usage of Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs, [RFC 3987] or its successor) to ease the adoption of ITS in international application scenarios.

Note: Go to the table of contents. 3.7 The ITS schemas Term HTML

This specification uses the term HTML to refer to HTML5 or its successor in Appendix D: Schemas for ITS HTML syntax [HTML5] .

Go to the table of contents. are not normative. Hence this 3.8 The Term CSS Selectors

This specification defines no validation requirements for IRI values uses the term CSS Selectors in ITS markup. For processing the sense of these values, relying on IRIs imposes no specific requirements. The reason is that Selectors as specified in [Selectors Level 3] to prevent confusion with the processing happens on generic use of the info set level [XML Infoset] , where no difference between IRIs and URIs exists. word "selector".

Go to the table of contents. 4 Conformance

This section is normative.

The usage of the term conformance clause in this section is in compliance with [QAFRAMEWORK] .

This specification defines three four types of conformance: conformance of 1) ITS markup declarations , , conformance of 2) processing expectations for ITS Markup and , conformance of 3) processing expectations for ITS Markup in HTML , and 4) markup conformance for HTML5+ITS documents . Also special The conformance class type 4 is defined for using ITS markup in HTML5 document documents, HTML5+ITS, which servers serves as an applicable specification for HTML5+ITS. in the sense specified in the Extensibility section of [HTML5] . These conformance types and classes complement each other. An implementation of this specification MAY use them separately or together.

Go to the table of contents. 4.1 Conformance Type 1: ITS Markup Declarations

Description: ITS markup declarations encompass all declarations that are part of the Internationalization Tag Set. They do not concern the usage of the markup in XML documents. Such markup is subject to the conformance clauses in Section 4.2: Conformance Type 2: The Processing Expectations for ITS Markup .

Definitions related to this conformance type: ITS markup declarations are defined in various subsections in in a schema language independent manner.

Who uses this conformance type: Schema designers integrating ITS markup declarations into a schema. All conformance clauses for this conformance type concern the position of ITS markup declarations in that schema, and their status as mandatory or optional.

Conformance clauses:

  • 1-1: At least one of the following MUST be in the schema:

    • rules element

    • one of the local ITS attributes

    • span element

    • ruby element
  • 1-2: If the rules element is used, it MUST be part of the content model of at least one element declared in the schema. It SHOULD be in a content model for meta information, if this is available in that schema (e.g. (e.g., the head element in [XHTML 1.0] ).

  • 1-3: If the ruby element is used, it SHOULD be declared as an inline element. 1-4: If the span element is used, it SHOULD be declared as an inline element.

Full implementations of this conformance type will implement all markup declarations for ITS. Statements related to this conformance type MUST list all markup declarations they implement.

Examples: Examples of the usage of ITS markup declarations in various existing schemas are given in a separate document [XML i18n BP] .

Note: Since the ITS markup declarations are schema language independent, each schema language can use its own, possibly multiple, mechanisms to implement the conformance clauses for ITS markup declarations. For example, an XML DTD can use parameter entities to encapsulate the ITS local attributes , or declare them directly for each element. The appropriate steps to integrate ITS into a schema depend on the design of this schema (e.g. whether it already has a customization layer that uses parameter entities). The ITS schemas in the format of XML Schema and RELAX NG in Appendix D: Schemas for ITS are only informative examples.

Go to the table of contents. 4.2 Conformance Type 2: The Processing Expectations for ITS Markup

[Ed. note: All traces of HTML has to be removed if we will proceed with CT 3 and HTML+ITS CC.]

Description: Processors need to compute the ITS information that pertains to a node in an XML or HTML5 document. The ITS processing expectations define how the computation has to be carried out. Correct computation involves support for selection mechanism , defaults / inheritance / overriding characteristics , and precedence . The markup MAY be valid against a schema which that conforms to the clauses in Section 4.1: Conformance Type 1: ITS Markup Declarations .

Definitions related to this conformance type: The processing expectations for ITS markup make use of selection mechanisms defined in Section 5: Processing of ITS information . The individual data categories defined in Section 6: Description 8: Description of Data Categories have defaults / inheritance / overriding characteristics , and allow for using ITS markup in various positions ( global and local ).

Who uses this conformance type: Applications that need to process the nodes captured by a data category for internationalization or localization. Examples of this type of application are: ITS markup-aware editors, or translation tools that make use of ITS markup to filter translatable text as an input to the localization process.

Note:

Application-specific processing (that is processing that goes beyond the computation of ITS information for a node) node), such as automated filtering of translatable content based on the Translate data category category, is not covered by the conformance clauses below.

Conformance clauses:

  • 2-1: A processor MUST implement at least one data category . For each implemented data category , the following MUST be taken into account:

  • 2-2: If an application claims to process ITS markup for the global selection mechanism, it MUST process an XLink href attribute found on a rules elements. If he application processes HTML5 documents, it MUST process an HTML href attribute found on an HTML link element. The link element MUST also have a rel attribute with the value its-rules .

  • 2-3: If an application claims to process ITS markup implementing the conformance clauses 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3, it MUST process that markup with HTML5 or with XML documents.

  • 2-4: After processing ITS information on the basis of conformance clauses 2-1 Non-ITS elements and 2-2 , an application attributes found in ITS elements MAY convert an XML or HTML document (or its DOM representation) to NIF, using the algorithm described in Section 5.7: Conversion to NIF . be ignored.

Note: The conformance clause 2-4 essentially means that the conversion to NIF is an optional feature of ITS 2.0, and that the conversion is independent of whether ITS information has been made available via the global or local selection mechanisms, see conformance clause 2-1-1 .

Statements related to this conformance type MUST list all data categories they implement, and for each data category , which type of selection they support, whether they support processing of XML and / or HTML5. If the implementation provides the conversion to NIF (see conformance clause 2-4 ), this MUST be stated. XML.

Note:

The above conformance clauses are directly reflected in the ITS 2.0 test suite . All tests specify which data category is processed (clause 2-1); 2-1 ); they are relevant for (clause 2-1-1) 2-1-1 ) global or local selection, or both; they require the processing of defaults and precedence of selections (clauses 2-1-2 and 2-1-3); 2-1-3 ); for each data category there are tests with linked rules (2-2); ( 2-2 ); and all types of tests are given for XML and HTML5 content (clause 2-3). In addition, there are test cases for conversion to NIF (clause 2-4). Implementors 2-3 ). Implementers are encouraged to organize their documentation in a similar way, so that users of ITS 2.0 easily can understand the processing capabilities availably. available.

[Ed. note: Need to update link to test suite once the test suite is moved.]

Go to the table of contents. 4.3 Conformance Type 3: Processing Expectations for ITS Markup in HTML

Description: Processors need to compute the ITS information that pertains to a node in a HTML5 an HTML document. The ITS processing expectations define how the computation has to be carried out. Correct computation involves support for selection mechanism , defaults / inheritance / overriding characteristics , and precedence .

Definitions related to this conformance type: The processing expectations for ITS markup make use of selection mechanisms defined in Section 5: Processing of ITS information . The individual data categories defined in Section 6: Description 8: Description of Data Categories have defaults / inheritance / overriding characteristics , and allow for using ITS markup in various positions ( local , external global and inline global ).

Who uses this conformance type: Applications that need to process the nodes captured by a data category for internationalization or localization. Examples of this type of application are: are ITS markup-aware editors, editors or translation tools that make use of ITS markup to filter translatable text as an input to the localization process.

Note:

Application-specific processing (that is processing that goes beyond the computation of ITS information for a node) such as automated filtering of translatable content based on the Translate data category is not covered by the conformance clauses below.

Conformance clauses:

Statements related to this conformance type MUST list all data categories they implement, and implement and, for each data category , which type of selection they support.

Go to the table of contents. 4.4 Conformance Class Type 4: Markup conformance for HTML5+ITS documents

Conforming HTML5+ITS documents are those that comply with all the conformance criteria for documents as defined in [HTML5] with the following exception:

Go to the table of contents. 5 Processing of ITS information

This section is normative.

Note:

Additional definitions about processing of HTML are given in Section 6: Using ITS Markup in HTML .

Go to the table of contents. 5.1 Indicating the Version of ITS

The version of the ITS schema defined in this specification is "2.0". The version is indicated by the ITS version attribute. This attribute is mandatory for the rules element, where it MUST be in no namespace.

If there is no rules element in an XML document, a prefixed ITS version attribute (e.g. (e.g., its:version ) MUST be provided at on the root element of where the document. ITS markup is used, or on one of its ancestors.

If there is both a no rules element and there are elements with standoff ITS markup in an XML document, an ITS version attribute at the root MUST be provided on element and with standoff ITS markup or a prefixed ITS version attribute (e.g., rules its:version element in a document, they ) MUST be provided on one of its ancestors.

There MUST NOT specify be two different versions. versions of ITS in the same document.

External, linked rules can have different versions than internal rules.

Go to the table of contents. 5.2 Locations of Data Categories

ITS data categories can appear in two places:

The two locations are described in detail below.

Go to the table of contents. 5.2.1 Global, Rule-based Selection

Global, rule-based selection is implemented using the rules element. It The rules element contains zero or more rule elements . Each rule element has a mandatory selector attribute. This attribute and all other possible attributes on rule elements are in the empty namespace and used without a prefix.

If there is more than one rules element in an XML document, the rules from each section are to be processed at the same precedence level. The rules sections are to be read in document order, and the ITS rules with them processed sequentially. The versions of these rules elements MUST NOT be different.

Depending on the data category and its usage, there are additional attributes for adding information to the selected nodes, or for pointing to existing information in the document. For example, the Localization Note data category can be used for adding notes to selected nodes, or for pointing to existing notes in the document. For the former purpose, a locNote element can be used. For the latter purpose, a locNotePointer attribute can be used.

Each The data category allows users to add information overview table , in Section 8.1: Position, Defaults, Inheritance, and Overriding of Data Categories , provides an overview of what data categories allow to the selected nodes except for language information . Pointing point to existing information is not possible for data categories that express a closed set of values , that is: Translate , Directionality , Locale Filter , and Elements Within Text . or to add information.

The functionalities of adding information and pointing to existing information are mutually exclusive . That is: markup for pointing and adding the same information MUST NOT appear in the same rule element.

Global rules can appear in the XML document they will be applied to, or in a separate XML document. The precedence of their processing depends on these variations. See also Section 5.5: Precedence between Selections .

Go to the table of contents. 5.2.2 Local Selection in an XML Document

Local selection in XML documents is realized with ITS local attributes , the ruby element, or the span element. span serves just as a carrier for the local ITS attributes and a container for ruby . The content model of span permits arbitrary nesting of ruby markup, since the rt element can contain span . An application of ruby, however, MUST not use such arbitrary nesting. attributes.

The data category determines what is being selected. The necessary data category specific defaults are described in Section 6.1: Position, 8.1: Position, Defaults, Inheritance Inheritance, and Overriding of Data Categories .

Example 15: Defaults 12: Defaults for various data categories

By default the content of all elements in a document is translatable. The attribute its:translate="no" in the head element means that the content of this element, including child elements, should is not be translated. intended for translation. The attribute its:translate="yes" in the title element means that the content of this element, should is to be translated (overriding the its:translate="no" in head ). Attribute values of the selected elements or their children are not affected by local translate attributes. By default they are not translatable.

The default directionality of a document is left-to-right. The its:dir="rtl" in the quote element means that the directionality of the content of this element, including child elements and attributes, is right-to-left. Note that xml:lang indicates only the language, not the directionality.

<text xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0" xml:lang="en">
  <head its:translate="no">
    <author>Sven Corneliusson</author>
    <date>2006-09-26T17:34:04Z</date>
    <title its:translate="yes" role="header">Bidirectional Text</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <par>In Arabic, the title <quote xml:lang="ar" its:dir="rtl">نشاط التدويل، W3C</quote> means
        <quote>Internationalization Activity, W3C</quote>.</par>
  </body>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-selection-local-1.xml ]

Note:

The dir and translate attributes are not listed in the ITS attributes to be used in HTML5. HTML. The reason is that these two attributes are available in HTML5 HTML natively, so there is no need to provide them as its- attributes. The definition of the two attributes in HTML5 HTML is compatibly, compatible, that is it provides the same values and interpretation, as the definition for the two data categories Translate and Directionality .

Go to the table of contents. 5.3 Query Language of Selectors

Go to the table of contents. 5.3.1 Choosing Query Language

Rule elements have attributes which that contain asbolute absolute and relative selectors. Interpretation of these selectors depends on the actual query languge. language. The query language is set by queryLanguage attribute on rules element. If queryLanguge is not specified XPath 1.0 is used as a default query language.

Go to the table of contents. 5.3.2 XPath 1.0

XPath 1.0 is identified by xpath value in queryLanguage attribute.

5.3.2.1Absolute 5.3.2.1 Absolute selector

The absolute selector MUST be an XPath expression which that starts with " / ". That is, it must MUST be an AbsoluteLocationPath or union of AbsoluteLocationPath s as described in XPath 1.0 . This ensures that the selection is not relative to a specific location. The resulting nodes MUST be either element or attribute nodes.

Context for evaluatiation evaluation of the XPath expression is as follows:

  • Context node is set to Root Node .

  • Both context position and context size are 1.

  • All variables defined by param elements are bind.

  • All functions defined in the XPath Core Function Library are available. It is an error for an expression to include a call to any other function.

  • The set of namespace declarations are those in scope on the element which that has the attribute in which the expression occurs. This includes the implicit declaration of the prefix xml required by the the XML Namespaces Recommendation ; the default namespace (as declared by xmlns ) is not part of this set.

Example 16: XPath 13: XPath expressions with namespaces

The term element from the TEI is in a namespace http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0 .

<!-- Definitions for TEI -->
<its:rules version="2.0"  xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
 <its:termRule selector="//tei:term" term="yes" xmlns:tei="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0"/>
</its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-selection-global-1.xml ]

Example 17: XPath 14: XPath expressions without namespaces

The term element from DocBook V4.5 is in no namespace.

<!-- Definitions for DocBook -->
<its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  <its:termRule selector="//term" term="yes"/>
</its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-selection-global-2.xml ]

5.3.2.2Relative 5.3.2.2 Relative selector

The relative selector MUST use a RelativeLocationPath or an AbsoluteLocationPath as described in XPath 1.0 . The XPath expression is evaluated relative to the nodes selected by the selector attribute.

The following attributes point to existing information: locNotePointer allowedCharactersPointer , locNoteRefPointer taClassRefPointer , termInfoPointer taIdentPointer , termInfoRefPointer taIdentRefPointer , rubyPointer taSourcePointer , rtPointer domainPointer , rpPointer externalResourceRefPointer , langPointer , locNotePointer , locNoteRefPointer , locQualityIssuesRefPointer , locQualityIssueTypePointer provenanceRecordsRefPointer , locQualityIssueCommentPointer storageEncodingPointer , locQualityIssueSeverityPointer storageSizePointer , locQualityIssueProfileRefPointer targetPointer , termInfoPointer , termInfoRefPointer .

[Ed. note: Make sure that previous list of ..Pointer attributes is complete once spec is stable.]

Context for evaluatiation evaluation of the XPath expression is the same as for an absolute selector with the following changes:

  • Nodes selected by the expression in the selector attribute form the current node list.

  • Context node comes from the current node list.

  • The context position comes from the position of the current node in the current node list; the first position is 1.

  • The context size comes from the size of the current node list.

Go to the table of contents. 5.3.3 CSS Selectors

Note:

The term CSS Selectors is used throughout the specification in the sense of Selectors as specified in [Selectors Level 3] to prevent confusion with the generic use of the word "selector". See The term CSS Selector .

Note:

The working group will not provide a CSS Selectors-based implementation; nevertheless there are several existing libraries that can translate CSS Selectors to XPath so that XPath selectors-based implementations can be used.

Note:

CSS selectors have no ability to point to attributes.

CSS Selectors are identified by the value css value in the queryLanguage attribute.

5.3.3.1Absolute 5.3.3.1 Absolute selector

Absolute An absolute selector MUST be interpreted as a selector as defined in Selectors [Selectors Level 3 3] . Both simple selectors and groups of selectors can be used.

5.3.3.2Relative 5.3.3.2 Relative selector

Relative A relative selector MUST be interpreted as a selector as defined in Selectors [Selectors Level 3 3] . Selector A selector is not evaluated against the complete document tree but only against subtrees rooted at nodes selected by the selector in the selector attribute.

Go to the table of contents. 5.3.4 Additional query languages

ITS processors MAY support additional query languages. For each additional query language the processor MUST define:

  • the identifier of the query language used in queryLanguage ;

  • rules for evaluating an absolute selector to a collection of nodes;

  • rules for evaluating a relative selector to a collection of nodes.

Future Because future versions of this specification MAY are likely to define additional query languages. The languages, the following query language identifiers are reserved: xpath , css , xpath2 , xpath3 , xquery , xquery3 , xslt2 , xslt3 .

Go to the table of contents. 5.3.5 Variables in selectors

A param element (or several ones) can be placed as the first child element(s) of the rules element to define the default values of variables used in the various selectors used in the rules.

Implementation An implementation MUST support the param element for all query languages it supports and which at the same time define how variables are bind bound for evaluation of the selector expression. Implementations SHOULD also provide means for changing the default values of the param elements. Such means are implementation-specific.

The param element has a required name attribute. The value of the name attribute is a QName , see [XML Names] . The content of the element is a string used as default value for the corresponding variable.

Example 18: Using 15: Using the param element to define the default value of a variable in a selector attribute.

The param element defines the default value for the $LCID variable. In this case, only the msg element with the attribute lcid set to "0x049" is seen as translatable.

<doc its:version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  <its:rules version="2.0">
    <its:param name="LCID">0x0409</its:param>
    <its:translateRule selector="/doc" translate="no"/>
    <its:translateRule selector="//msg[@lcid=$LCID]" translate="yes"/>
  </its:rules>
  <msg lcid="0x0409" num="1">Create a folder</msg>
  <msg lcid="0x0411" num="1">フォルダーを作成する</msg>
  <msg lcid="0x0407" num="1">Erstellen Sie einen Ordner</msg>
  <msg lcid="0x040c" num="1">Créer un dossier</msg>
</doc>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-param-in-global-rules-1.xml ]

Note:

In XSLT-based applications, it may make sense to map ITS parameters directly to XSLT parameters. To avoid naming conflicts one can use a prefix with the parameter name's value to distinguish between the ITS parameters and the XSLT parameters.

Go to the table of contents. 5.4 Link to External Rules

One way to associate a document with a set of external ITS rules is to use the optional XLink [XLink 1.1] href attribute in the rules element. The referenced document must MUST be a valid XML document containing at most one rules element. That rules element can be the root element or be located anywhere within the document tree (for example, the document could be an XML Schema).

The rules contained in the referenced document MUST be processed as if they were at the top of the rules element with the XLink href attribute.

Example 19: External 16: External file EX-link-external-rules-1.xml with global rules:

The example demonstrates how metadata can be added to ITS rules.

<myFormatInfo>
  <desc>ITS rules used by the Open University</desc>
  <hostVoc>http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0</hostVoc>
  <rulesId>98ECED99DF63D511B1250008C784EFB1</rulesId>
  <rulesVersion>v 1.81 2006/03/28 07:43:21</rulesVersion>
  ... 
  <its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
    <its:translateRule selector="//header" translate="no"/>
    <its:translateRule selector="//term" translate="no"/>
    <its:termRule selector="//term" term="yes"/>
    <its:withinTextRule withinText="yes" selector="//term | //b"/>
  </its:rules>
</myFormatInfo>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-link-external-rules-1.xml ]

Example 20: Document 17: Document with a link to EX-link-external-rules-1.xml
<myDoc>
  <header>
    <its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"
      xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="EX-link-external-rules-1.xml">
      <its:translateRule selector="//term" translate="yes"/>
    </its:rules>
    <author>Theo Brumble</author>
    <lastUpdate>Apr-01-2006</lastUpdate>
  </header>
  <body>
    <p>A <term>Palouse horse</term> has a spotted coat.</p>
  </body>
</myDoc>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-link-external-rules-2.xml ]

The result of processing the two documents above is the same as processing the following document.

Example 21: Document 18: Document with identical rules as in the case of included rules
<myDoc>
  <header>
    <its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
      <its:translateRule selector="//header" translate="no"/>
      <its:translateRule selector="//term" translate="no"/>
      <its:termRule selector="//term" term="yes"/>
      <its:withinTextRule withinText="yes" selector="//term | //b"/>
      <its:translateRule selector="//term" translate="yes"/>
    </its:rules>
    <author>Theo Brumble</author>
    <lastUpdate>Apr-01-2006</lastUpdate>
  </header>
  <body>
    <p>A <term>Palouse horse</term> has a spotted coat.</p>
  </body>
</myDoc>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-link-external-rules-3.xml ]

Example 19: External rules file with the rules element as the root element

As with Example 16 , these rules can be applied to Example 17 . The only difference is that in Example 19 , the rules element is the root element of the external file.


"color: #000096"><its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  
"color: #000096"><its:translateRule selector="//header" translate="no"/>
  
"color: #000096"><its:translateRule selector="//term" translate="no"/>
  
"color: #000096"><its:termRule selector="//term" term="yes"/>
  
"color: #000096"><its:withinTextRule withinText="yes" selector="//term | //b"/>

"color: #000096"></its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-link-external-rules-4.xml ]

Applications processing global ITS markup MUST recognize the XLink href attribute in the rules element; they MUST load the corresponding referenced document and process its rules element before processing the content of the rules element where the original XLink href attribute is.

External rules may also have links to other external rules. rules (see Example 17 ). The linking mechanism is recursive, recursive in a depth-first approach, and subsequently after the deepest rules being overridden by processing the top-most rules, if any. rules MUST be read top-down (see Example 18 ).

Go to the table of contents. 5.5 Precedence between Selections

The following precedence order is defined for selections of ITS information in various positions (the first item in the list has the highest precedence):

  1. Implicit Selection via explicit (i.e., not inherited) local selection ITS markup in documents ( ITS local attributes on a specific element)

  2. Global selections in documents (using a rules element)

    Inside each rules element the precedence order is:

    1. Any rule inside the rules element

    2. Any rule linked via the XLink href attribute

    Note:

    If identical selections are defined in different rules elements within one document, the selection defined by the last takes precedence. Note: ITS does not define precedence related to rules defined or linked based on non-ITS mechanisms (such as processing instructions for linking rules).

  3. Selection via inherited values. This applies only to element nodes. The inheritance rules are laid out in a dedicated data category overview table : see the column " Inheritance for element nodes ". Selection via inheritance takes precedence over default values, see below item.

  4. Selections via defaults for data categories, see Section 6.1: Position, 8.1: Position, Defaults, Inheritance Inheritance, and Overriding of Data Categories

In case of conflicts between global selections via multiple rules elements, elements or conflicts between multiple param elements with the same name, the last rule or last param element has higher precedence.

Note:

The precedence order fulfills the same purpose as the built-in template rules of [XSLT 1.0] . Override semantics are always complete, that is all information that is specified in one rule element provided via lower precedence is overridden by the next one. higher precedence. E.g. defaults are overridden by inherited values and these are overridden by nodes selected via global rules, which are in turn overridden by local markup.

Example 22: Conflicts 20: Conflicts between selections of ITS information which are resolved using the precedence order

The two elements title and author of this document should be treated are intended as separate content when inside a prolog element, but in other contexts as part of the content of their parent element otherwise. element. In order to make this distinction two withinTextRule elements are used:

The first rule specifies that title and author in general should are to be treated as an element within text. This overrides the default.

The second rule indicates that when title or author are found in a prolog element their content should is to be treated separately. This is normally the default, but the rule is needed to override the first rule.

<text>
  <prolog>
    <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
      <its:withinTextRule withinText="yes" selector="//title|//author"/>
      <its:withinTextRule withinText="no" selector="//prolog/title|//prolog/author"/>
    </its:rules>
    <title>Designing User Interfaces</title>
    <author>Janice Prakash</author>
    <keywords>user interface, ui, software interface</keywords>
  </prolog>
  <body>
    <p>The book <title>Of Mice and Screens</title> by <author>Aldus Brandywine</author> is one of
      the best introductions to the vast topic of designing user interfaces.</p>
  </body>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-selection-precedence-1.xml ]

Go to the table of contents. 5.6 Associating ITS Data Categories with Existing Markup

Some markup schemes provide markup which that can be used to express ITS data categories. ITS data categories can be associated with such existing markup, using the global selection mechanism described in Section 5.2.1: Global, Rule-based Selection .

Associating existing markup with ITS data categories can be done only if the processing expectations of the host markup are the same as, or greater than, those of ITS. For example, the [DITA 1.0] format can use its translate attribute to apply to “transcluded” content, going beyond the ITS 2.0 local selection mechanism, but not contradicting it.

Example 23: Association 21: Association of the ITS data categories Translate and Terminology with DITA 1.0 markup

In this example, there is an existing translate attribute in DITA, and it is associated with the ITS semantics using the its:rules section. Similarly, the DITA dt and term elements are associated with the ITS Terminology data category.

<topic id="myTopic">
  <title>The ITS Topic</title>
  <prolog>
    <its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
      <its:translateRule selector="//*[@translate='no']" translate="no"/>
      <its:translateRule selector="//*[@translate='yes']" translate="yes"/>
      <its:termRule selector="//term | //dt" term="yes"/>
    </its:rules>
  </prolog>
  <body>
    <dl>
      <dlentry id="tDataCat">
        <dt>Data category</dt>
        <dd>ITS defines <term>data category</term> as an abstract concept for a particular type of
          information related to internationalization and localization of XML schemas and
          documents.</dd>
      </dlentry>
    </dl>
    <p>For the implementation of ITS, apply the rules in the order:</p>
    <ul>
      <li>Defaults</li>
      <li>Rules in external files</li>
      <li>Rules in the document</li>
      <li>Local attributes</li>
    </ul>
    <p><ph translate="no" xml:lang="fr">Et voilà !</ph>.</p>
  </body>
</topic>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-associating-its-with-existing-markup-1.xml ]

Global rules can be associated with a given XML document using different means:

  • By using an rules element in the document itself:

    • with the rules directly inside the document, as shown in Example 23 21

    • with a link to an external rules file using the XLink href attribute, as shown in Example 19 16

  • By associating the rules and the document through a tool-specific mechanism. For example, for in the case of a command-line tool: tool by providing the paths of both the XML document to process and its corresponding external rules file.

Go to the table of contents. 5.7 Conversion to NIF ITS Tools Annotation

This section defines an algorithm In some cases, it may be important for instances of data categories to convert XML or HTML documents (or their DOM representations) be associated with information about the processor that contain ITS metadata to generated them. For example, the RDF-based format NIF . The conversion results in RDF triples score of the MT Confidence data category (provided via the mtConfidence attribute) is meaningful only when the consumer of the information also knows which MT engine produced it, because the score provides the relative confidence of translations from the same MT engine but does not provide a score that rely on can be reliably compared between MT engines. The same is true for confidence provided for the Text Analysis data category, providing confidence information via the taConfidence attribute, or the Terminology data category, providing confidence information via the termConfidence attribute.

ITS 2.0 ontology, see tbd. [Ed. note: Add link provides a mechanism to ontology once it is done; assure that associate such processor information with the examples use of individual data categories in a document, independently from data category annotations themselves.

The attribute annotatorsRef provides a way to associate all the correct base URIs for annotations of a given data category within the ontology.] element with information about the processor that generated those data category annotations.

Note:

  • Three cases of providing tool information can be expected:

    1. The algorithm information about tools used for creating or modifying the textual content;

    2. information about tools that do 1), but also create ITS annotations, see Appendix I: List of ITS 2.0 Global Elements and Local Attributes ;

    3. information about tools that don’t modify or create content, but just create ITS annotations.

    annotatorsRef is intended only meant to extract the text from the XML/HTML/DOM be used when actual ITS annotation is involved, that is for an NLP 2) and 3). To express tool information related only to the creation or modification of textual content and can produce a lot independent of " phantom " predicates from excessive whitespace, which 1) increases ITS data categories, that is case 1), the size tool or toolRef attribute provided by the Provenance data category is to be used.

  • An example of case 2) is an MT engine that modifies content and creates ITS MT Confidence annotations. Here the intermediate mapping situation may occur that several tools are involved in creating MT Confidence annotations: the MT engine and 2) extracts this whitespace as text. This might decrease NLP performance. It the tool inserting the markup. The annotatorsRef attribute is recommended to normalize whitespace in identify the input XML/HTML/DOM tool most useful in order to minimize such phantom predicates. A normalized example further processes, in this case the MT engine.

The value of annotatorsRef is given below. a space-separated list of references where each reference is composed of two parts: a data category identifier and an IRI. These two parts are separated by a | VERTICAL LINE (U+007C) character:

  • The whitespace normalization algorithm itself data category identifier MUST be one of the identifiers specified in the data category overview table .

  • Within one annotatorsRef value, a data category identifier MUST NOT appear more than one time.

  • The IRI indicates information about the processor used to generate the data category annotation. No single means is format dependend, e.g. it differs specified for how this IRI has to be used to indicate processor information. Possible mechanisms are: to encode information directly in the IRI, e.g., as parameters; to reference an external resource that provides such information, e.g. an XML file or an RDF declaration; or to reference another part of the document that provides such information.

In HTML compared documents, the mechanism is implemented with the its-annotators-ref attribute.

The attribute applies to general XML. Hence no normative algorithm for whitespace normalization the content of the element where it is declared (including its children elements) and to the attributes of that element.

On any given as node, the information provided by this mechanism is a space-separated list of the accumulated references found in the annotatorsRef attributes declared in the enclosing elements and sorted by data category identifiers. For each data category, the IRI part is the one of the inner-most declaration.

Example 22: Accumulation and Overriding of the annotatorsRef Values

In this specification. example, the text shows the computed tools reference information for the given node. Note that the references are ordered alphabetically and that the IRI values are always the ones of the inner-most declaration.


"color: #000096"><doc its:version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"
  
"color: #F5844C">its:annotatorsRef="mt-confidence|MT1"
  >doc node: "mt-confidence|MT1"
  
"color: #000096"><group its:annotatorsRef="terminology|ABC"
    >group node: "mt-confidence|MT1 terminology|ABC"
    
"color: #000096"><p its:annotatorsRef="text-analysis|Tool3"
      >This p node: "text-analysis|Tool3 mt-confidence|MT1 terminology|ABC"</p>
    
"color: #000096"><p its:annotatorsRef="mt-confidence|MT123"
      >This p node: "mt-confidence|MT123 terminology|ABC"</p>
 
"color: #000096"></group>
  
"color: silver"><!-- To make this example usable in real life, we would have 
    annotations of the three data categories - text-analysis, mt-confidence and terminology 
    - in the document -->
  
"color: #000096"><p its:annotatorsRef="text-analysis|XYZ"
   >This p node: "text-analysis|XYZ mt-confidence|MT1"</p>
</doc>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-its-tool-annotation-1.xml ]

Example 24: Example 23: Example of an HTML ITS Tools Annotation

The annotatorsRef attribute is used in this XML document to indicate that information about the processor that generated the mtConfidence values for the first two p elements are found in element with id="T1" in the external document tools.xml, while that information for the third p element is found in the element with whitespace nornalized, as id="T2" in the same document. In addition, annotatorsRef is used to identify a preparation for conversion Web resource with information about the QA tool used to NIF generate the Localization Quality Issue annotation in the document.

"color: #000096"><html><strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><body><strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><h2 <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">translate=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"yes"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>Welcome to <strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"><span 
   <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its-disambig-ident-ref=<span class=

"color: #000096"><doc its:version="2.0"
    
"color: #F5844C">its:annotatorsRef=
    
"color: #993300">"mt-confidence|file:///tools.xml#T1 localization-quality-issue
    |http://www.qalsp-ex.com/qatools/transcheckv1.3"
    
"color: #F5844C">xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
    
"color: #000096"><p its:mtConfidence="0.78">Text translated with tool T1</p>
    
"color: #000096"><p its:mtConfidence="0.55" its:locQualityIssueType="typographical"
        
"color: #F5844C">its:locQualityIssueComment=
"hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dublin" 
   <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">translate=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"no"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>Dublin<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></span> in <strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"><b <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">translate=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"no"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>Ireland<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></b>!<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></h2><strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></body><strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"></html>

"color: #993300">"Sentence without capitalization"
        
"color: #F5844C">its:locQualityIssueSeverity="50">text also translated with tool T1</p>
    
"color: #000096"><p its:mtConfidence="0.34" 
      
"color: #F5844C">its:annotatorsRef="mt-confidence|file:///tools.xml#T2"> Text translated
        with tool T2</p>
</doc>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-its-tool-annotation-2.xml ]

Example 24: Example of ITS Tool Annotation

The conversion algorithm its-annotators-ref attributes are used in this HTML document to generate NIF consists of seven steps. indicate that the MT Confidence annotation on the first two span elements come from one MT (French to English) engine, while the annotation on the third comes from another (Italian to English) engine. Both its-annotators-ref attributes refer to a Web resource for information about the engine generating the MT Confidence annotation.

STEP 1: Get an ordered list
"color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html>

"color: #000096"><html lang=en>
    
"color: #000096"><head>
        
"color: #000096"><meta charset=utf-8>
            
"color: #000096"><title>Sentences about capital cities 
                machine translated into English with mtConfidence defined 
                locally.</title>
    
"color: #000096"></head>
    
"color: #000096"><body its-annotators-ref="mt-confidence|http://www.exmt-prov.com/2012/11/9/fr-t-en">
        
"color: #000096"><p>     
 
"color: #000096"><span its-mt-confidence=0.8982>Dublin is the capital of Ireland.</span>
 
"color: #000096"><span its-mt-confidence=0.8536>The capital of the Czech Republic is Prague.</span>
 
"color: #000096"><span its-mt-confidence=0.7009
  
"color: #F5844C">its-annotators-ref="mt-confidence|http://www.exmt-prov.com/2012/11/9/it-t-en">
  The capital Italia is Roma.</span>
        
"color: #000096"></p>  
    
"color: #000096"></body>

"color: #000096"></html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-its-tool-annotation-html5-1.html ]

Go to the table of contents. 6 Using ITS Markup in HTML

This section is normative.

Note:

Please note that the term HTML refers to HTML5 or its successor in HTML syntax [HTML5] .

Go to the table of contents. 6.1 Mapping of all text nodes Local Data Categories to HTML

All data categories defined in Section 8: Description of Data Categories and having local implementation may be used in HTML with the document. STEP 2: Generate an XPath expression for each non-empty text node exception of all leaf elements the Translate , Directionality and remember Language Information data categories.

Note:

The above-mentioned data categories are excluded because HTML has native markup for them.

STEP 3: Get

In HTML data categories are implemented as attributes. The name of the text for each node and make a tuple with HTML attribute is derived from the XPath expressions (X,T). Since name of the text nodes have a certain order we now have attribute defined in the local implementation by using the following rules:

  1. The attribute name is prefixed with its-

  2. Each uppercase letter in the attribute name is replaced by - (U+002D) followed by a list lowercase variant of ordered tuples ((x0,t0), (x1,t1), ..., (xn,tn)). the letter.

  3. STEP 4 (optional): Serialize as XML or as RDF. The list

Example 48 demonstrates the Elements Within Text data category with the XPath-to-text mapping can also be kept local XML attribute withinText . Example 49 demonstrates the counterpart in memory. Part HTML, i.e., the local attribute its-within-text .

Values of attributes, which corresponds to data categories with a serialization example predefined set of values, MUST be matched ASCII-case-insensitively.

Note:

Case of attribute names is also irrelevant given below. the nature of HTML syntax. So in HTML the terminology data category can be stored as its-term , ITS-TERM , its-Term etc. All of those attributes are treated as equivalent and will be normalized upon DOM construction.

@prefix itsrdf: <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its/rdf#> . <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#xpath(x0)> itsrdf:xpath2nif <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_b0_e0> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#xpath(x1)> itsrdf:xpath2nif <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_b1_e1> # ... <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#xpath(xn)> itsrdf:xpath2nif <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_bn_en> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mappings> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mapping <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">x=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"xpath(x0)" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">b=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"b0" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">e=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"e0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"> /> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mapping <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">x=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"xpath(x1)" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">b=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"b1" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">e=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"e1"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"> /> <em class="hl-comment" style= "color: silver"><!-- ... --> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mapping <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">x=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"xpath(xn)" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">b=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"bn" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">e=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"en"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"> /> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></mappings>

where Values of attributes that correspond to data categories that use XML Schema double data type MUST be also valid floating-point numbers as defined in [HTML5] .

b0 = 0 e0 = b0 + (Number of characters of t0) b1 = e0 +1 e1 = b1 + (Number of characters of t1) ... bn = e(n-1) +1 en = bn + (Number of characters of tn)

Go to the table of contents. 6.2 Global rules

Various aspects for global rules in general, external global rules, or inline global rules need to be taken into account. An example of an HTML5 document using global rules is Example (continued) 6 . The corresponding rules file is Example 7 .

@prefix itsrdf: <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its/rdf#> . # "Welcome to " <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/text()[1])> itsrdf:nif <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_0_11> . # "Dublin" <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/span[1]/text()[1])> itsrdf:nif <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_11_17> . # " in " <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/text()[2])> itsrdf:nif <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_17_21> . # "Ireland" <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/b[1]/text()[1])> itsrdf:nif <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_21_28> . # "!" <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/text()[3])> itsrdf:nif <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_28_29> . # "Welcome to Dublin Ireland!" <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/text())> itsrdf:nif <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_0_29> . <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mappings> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mapping <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">x=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/text()[1])" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">b=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"0" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">e=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"11"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"> /> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mapping <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">x=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/span[1]/text()[1])" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">b=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"11" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">e=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"17"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"> /> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mapping <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">x=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/text()[2])" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">b=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"17" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">e=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"21"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"> /> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mapping <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">x=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/b[1]/text()[1])" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">b=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"21" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">e=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"28"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"> /> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mapping <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">x=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1]/text()[3])" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">b=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"28" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">e=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"29"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"> /> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><mapping <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">x=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"xpath(/html/body[1]/h2[1])" <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">b=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"0" <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">e=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"29"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"> /> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></mappings>

Note:

By default XPath 1.0 will be used for selection in global rules. If users prefer an easier selection mechanism, they can switch query language to CSS selectors by using the queryLanguage attribute, see Section 5.3.1: Choosing Query Language .

Note:

The HTML5 parsing algorithm automatically puts all HTML elements into the XHTML namespace ( http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml ). Selectors used in global rules need to take this into account.

[Ed. note: Below needs

Linking to external global rules is specified in the href attribute of link elements, with the link relation its-rules .

Note:

Using XPath in global rules linked from HTML documents does not create an additional burden to implementers. Parsing HTML content produces a reference DOM tree that can be directly queried using XPath, functionality supported by all major browsers.

Inline global rules MUST be specified inside a script element that has a type attribute with the value application/its+xml . The script element itself SHOULD be a child of the head element. Comments MUST NOT be used inside global rules. Each script element MUST NOT contain more than one rules element.

Note:

It is preferred to use external global rules linked using the link element than to have global rules embedded in the document.

Go to the table of contents. 6.3 Standoff Markup in HTML

The constraints for Provenance standoff markup in HTML and Localization quality issues markup in HTML MUST be followed.

Go to the table of contents. 6.4 Precedence between Selections

The following precedence order is defined for selections of ITS ontology, once available.] information in various positions of HTML document (the first item in the list has the highest precedence):

  1. STEP 5: Create

    Implicit local selection in documents ( ITS local attributes on a context URI and attach specific element)

  2. Global selections in documents (using the whole concatenated text mechanism of the external global rules or inline global rules ), to be processed in a document order, see Section 5.2.1: Global, Rule-based Selection for details.

    Note:

    ITS does not define precedence related to rules defined or linked based on non-ITS mechanisms (such as reference. processing instructions for linking rules). Selection via inheritance takes precedence over default values (see below).

  3. STEP 6: Now attach any ITS metadata items from the XML/HTML/DOM input

    Selection via inherited values. This applies only to respective NIF URIs using element nodes. The inheritance rules are laid out in a dedicated data category overview table (see the ITS/RDF ontology (TODO Name). column " Inheritance for element nodes). Selection via inheritance takes precedence over default values (see below). "

  4. STEP 7: Omit

    Selections via defaults for data categories, see Section 8.1: Position, Defaults, Inheritance, and Overriding of Data Categories .

In case of conflicts between global selections via multiple rules elements or conflicts between multiple param elements with the same name, the last rule or last param element has higher precedence.

Example 6 , previously discussed, demonstrates the precedence: the code element with the translate attribute set to yes has precedence over the global rule setting all irrelevant URIs (those that do not carry annotations, they will just bloat code elements as untranslatable.

Go to the table of contents. 7 Using ITS Markup in XHTML

This section is normative.

XHTML documents aimed at public consumption by Web browsers, including HTML5 documents in XHTML syntax, SHOULD use the data). syntax described in Section 6: Using ITS Markup in HTML in order to adhere to DOM Consistency HTML Design Principle .

Example 25: Using ITS 2.0 markup in XHTML

This example illustrates the use of ITS 2.0 local markup in XHTML.

@prefix itsrdf: <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its/rdf#> .

"color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_0_29>
    rdf:type             str:Context ;
# concatenate the whole text
    str:isString         "$(t0+t1+t2+...+tn)" ; 
    itsrdf:translate     "yes"^^<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><http://www.w3.org/TR/its-2.0/its.xsd#yesOrNo> ;
    str:occursIn      <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html> .

"color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">

"color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_11_17> 
    rdf:type              str:String ;
    itsrdf:translate     "no"^^<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><http://www.w3.org/TR/its-2.0/its.xsd#yesOrNo> ;
    itsrdf:disambigIdentRef  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dublin> ;
    str:referenceContext <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_0_29> .

"color: #000096"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
    
"color: #000096"><head>
        
"color: #000096"><title>XHTML and ITS2.0</title>
    
"color: #000096"></head>
    
"color: #000096"><body>
        
"color: #000096"><h1>XHTML and ITS2.0</h1>
        
"color: #000096"><p>Don't use 
          
"color: #000096"><span its-loc-note="Internationalization Tag Set">ITS</span> prefixed
            attributes inside the content, like its:locNote.</p>
    
"color: #000096"></body>

"color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_21_28> 
    rdf:type              str:String ;
    itsrdf:translate     "no"^^<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><http://www.w3.org/TR/its-2.0/its.xsd#yesOrNo> ;
    str:referenceContext <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><http://example.com/exampledoc.html#offset_0_29> .

"color: #000096"></html>

A complete sample output in RDF/XML format after step 7, given the input document Example 24 , is available at examples/nif/EX-nif-conversion-output.xml . [Source file: examples/html5/EX-xhtml-markup-1.html ]

Note:

The conversion Please note that this section defines how to NIF use ITS in XHTML content that is the basis for natural language processing (NLP) applications, creating for example named entity annotations. A non-normative algorithm directly served to integrate these annotations into the original input document Web browsers. Such XHTML is given very often sent with an incorrect media type and parsed as HTML rather than XML in Appendix G: Conversion NIF2ITS . The algorithm Web browsers. In such case it is more robust and safer to use HTML-like syntax for ITS metadata.

However when XHTML is not used as a delivery but rather as an exchange or storage format all XML features can be used in that appendix XHTML and it is non-normative since many choices depend on the actual NLP application. advised to use XML syntax for ITS metadata.

Go to the table of contents. 6 8 Description of Data Categories

This section is normative.

Go to the table of contents. 6.1 8.1 Position, Defaults, Inheritance Inheritance, and Overriding of Data Categories

The following table summarizes for each data category which selection, default value, and inheritance and overriding behavior applies. apply. It also provides data category identifiers used in Section 5.7: ITS Tools Annotation :

  • Default values apply if both local or and global selection are absent. The default value for the Translate data category category, for example example, mandates that elements are translatable, and attributes are not translatable if there is no translateRule element and no translate attribute available.

  • Inheritance describes whether ITS information is applicable to child elements of nodes and attributes related to these nodes or their child notes. The inheritance for the Translate data category category, for example example, mandates that all child elements of nodes are translatable whereas all attributes related to these the nodes or their child notes are not translatable.

  • For ITS data categories with inheritance, the information conveyed by the data category can be overridden. For example, a local translate attribute overrides the Translate information conveyed by a global translateRule .

Foreign elements can be used only inside rules . Foreign attributes can be used on any element defined in ITS.

Note:

An ITS application is free to decide what pieces of content it uses. For example:

  • Terminology information is added to a term element. The information pertains only to the content of the element, since there is no inheritance for Terminology . Nevertheless an ITS application can make use of the complete element, e.g. e.g., including attribute nodes etc.

  • Using Id value ID Value , a unique identifier is provided for a p element. An application can make use of the complete p element, including child nodes and attributes nodes. The application is also free to make use just of the string value of p . Nevertheless the id provided via ID value Value pertains only to the p element. It cannot be used to identify nested elements or attributes.

  • Using target pointer , selected source element elements have the ITS information that their translation is available in a target element; see Example 72 65 . This information does not inherit to child elements of target pointer . E.g., the translation of a span element nested in source is not available in a specific target element. Nevertheless, an application is free to use the complete content of source , including span , and e.g. and, e.g., present it to a translator.

[Ed. note: The links to examples (last column) are currently pointing to the old location of the test suite; these need to be updated to the github location. Also, the table needs to be completed and checked against the data category specific sections.] tbd n/a
Data category ( identifier ) Local Usage Global, rule-based selection Global adding of information Global pointing to existing information Default Values Inheritance for elements nodes XML examples HTML5 examples Examples
Translate ( translate ) Yes Yes Yes No For XML: translate="yes" for elements, and translate="no" for attributes attributes.
For [HTML5] : see HTLM5 Translate Handling .
For XML: Textual content of element, including content of child elements, but excluding attributes local , global attributes.
For [HTML5] : see HTLM5 Translate Handling .
local , global
Localization Note ( localization-note ) Yes Yes Yes Yes None Textual content of element, including content of child elements, but excluding attributes local , global local , global
Terminology ( terminology ) Yes Yes Yes Yes term="no" None local , global local , global
Directionality ( directionality ) Yes Yes Yes No dir="ltr" Textual content of element, including attributes and child elements local , global tbd Ruby Yes Yes Yes Yes None None local , global
Language Information ( language-information ) No Yes No Yes None Textual content of element, including attributes and child elements global global
Elements Within Text ( elements-within-text ) Yes Yes Yes No For XML content: withinText="no" .
For [HTML5] : see HTLM5 Element Within Text Handling .
None local , global local , global
Domain ( domain ) No Yes Yes Yes None Textual content of element, including attributes and child elements global global
Disambiguation Text Analysis ( text-analysis ) Yes Yes Yes Yes None None local local , global
Locale Filter ( locale-filter ) Yes Yes Yes No localeFilterList="*" , localeFilterType="include" Textual content of element, including attributes and child elements local , global local , global
Translation Agent Provenance ( provenance ) Yes Yes Yes No Yes None Textual content of element, including child elements, but excluding elements and attributes tbd tbd local , global
External Resource ( external-resource ) No Yes No Yes None None global global
Target Pointer ( target-pointer ) No Yes No Yes None None global global
Id ID Value ( id-value ) No Yes No Yes None None global global
Preserve Space ( preserve-space ) Yes Yes Yes No default Textual content of element, including attributes and child elements local , global
Localization Quality Issue ( localization-quality-issue ) Yes Yes Yes Yes None Textual content of element, including child elements, but excluding attributes tbd tbd local , global
Localization Quality Précis Rating ( localization-quality-rating ) Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No None Textual content of element, including child elements, but excluding attributes tbd tbd local
MT Confidence ( mt-confidence ) Yes Yes Yes No None Textual content of element, including child elements, but excluding attributes tbd tbd local , global
Allowed Characters ( allowed-characters ) Yes Yes Yes Yes None Textual content of element, including child elements, but excluding attributes tbd tbd local , global
Storage Size ( storage-size ) Yes Yes Yes Yes storageEncoding="UTF-8" None tbd None tbd local , global
Example 25: Defaults, 26: Defaults, inheritance and overriding behavior of data categories

In this example, the content of all the data elements is translatable and none of the attributes are translatable, because the default for the Translate data category in elements is "yes". "yes" and in attributes is "no", and neither of their values are overridden at all. The first translateRule is overridden by the local its:translate="no" attribute. The content of revision , profile , reviser and locNote is elements are not translatable translatable. This is because the default is overridden by the local same its:translate="no" attribute that these elements inherit from the local ITS markup in the prolog element, and that value element. The exception is the field element where the second translateRule takes precedence over the inherited by all value. The last translateRule indicates that the children content of prolog . type is not translatable because the global rule takes precedence over the default value.

The localization note for the two first data elements is the text defined globally with the locNoteRule element. And this This note is overridden for the last data element by the local its:locNote locNote attribute.

<Res xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0">
  <prolog its:translate="no">
    <revision>Sep-07-2006</revision>
    "color: #000096"><profile>
      
"color: #000096"><reviser>John Doe</reviser>
      
"color: #000096"><field>Computing Engineering</field>
    
"color: #000096"></profile>
    <its:rules version="2.0">
      <its:translateRule selector="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//msg/notes" <span class=

"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//prolog" translate="yes"/>
      
"color: #000096"><its:translateRule selector="/Res/prolog/profile/field" translate="yes"/>
      
"color: #000096"><its:translateRule selector="//msg/type" 
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">translate="no"/>
      <its:locNoteRule locNoteType="description" selector="//msg/data">
        <its:locNote>The variable {0} is the name of the host.</its:locNote>
      </its:locNoteRule>
    </its:rules>
  </prolog>
  <body>
    <msg id="HostNotFound">
      "color: #000096"><type>Error</type>
      <data>Host {0} cannot be found.</data>
    </msg>
    <msg id="HostDisconnected">
      "color: #000096"><type>Error</type>
      <data>The connection with {0} has been lost.</data>
    </msg>
    <msg id="FileNotFound">
      "color: #000096"><type>Error</type>
      <data its:locNote="{0} is a filename">{0} not found.</data>
    </msg>
  </body>
</Res>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-datacat-behavior-1.xml ]

Note:

The data categories differ with respect to defaults. This difference is due to existing standards and practices. It is common practice for example that information about translation refers only to textual content of an element. Thus, the default selection for the Translate data category is the textual content.

Go to the table of contents. 6.2 8.2 Translate

Go to the table of contents. 6.2.1 8.2.1 Definition

The Translate data category expresses information about whether the content of an element or attribute should be translated is intended for translation or not. The values of this data category are "yes" (translatable) or "no" (not translatable).

Go to the table of contents. 6.2.2 8.2.2 Implementation

The Translate data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on an individual element. Handling of inheritance and interaction between elements and attributes is different for XML content versus [HTML5] content.

For XML: for elements, the data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements, but excluding attributes. The default is that elements are translatable and attributes are not.

For HTML: The interpretation of the translate attribute is given in HTML5 . Nodes in an HTML document selected via a global rule are also interpreted following HTML5 .

Note:

As of writing, the default in [HTML5] is that elements are translatable, and that translatable attributes inherit from the respective elements. There is a pre-defined list of translatable attributes, for example alt or title .

Since the [HTML5] definition also applies to nodes selected via global rules, a translateRule like <its:translateRule selector=""//h:img" translate="yes"/> will set the img element and its translatable attributes like alt to "yes".

GLOBAL: The translateRule element contains the following:

[Ed. note: All selector related definitions has to be update to reflect queryLanguage]
  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required translate attribute with the value "yes" or "no".

Example 26: The 27: The Translate data category expressed globally

The translateRule element specifies that the elements code must is not to be translated.

<its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  <its:translateRule translate="no" selector="//code"/>
</its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-translate-selector-1.xml ]

LOCAL: The following local markup is available for the Translate data category:

  • A translate attribute with the value "yes" or "no".

In [HTML5] the native [HTML5] translate attribute MUST be used to express the Translate data category.

Note:

It For XML content, it is not possible to override the Translate data category settings of attributes using local markup. This limitation is consistent with the advised practice of not using translatable attributes. If attributes need to be translatable (e.g., an HTML alt attribute), translatable, then this must has to be declared globally. Note that this restriction does not apply to HTML5 .

Example 27: The 28: The Translate data category expressed locally

The local its:translate="no" specifies that the content of panelmsg must is not to be translated.

<messages its:version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  <msg num="123">Click Resume Button on Status Display or <panelmsg its:translate="no"
      >CONTINUE</panelmsg> Button on printer panel</msg>
</messages>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-translate-selector-2.xml ]

Example 28: The 29: The Translate data category expressed locally in HTML5 HTML

The local translate="no" attribute specifies that the content of span must is not to be translated.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <title>Translate flag test: Default</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>The <span translate=no>World Wide Web Consortium</span> is
      making the World Web Web worldwide!<strong class="hl-tag"

      making the World Wide Web worldwide!
style="color: #000096"></p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-translate-html5-local-1.html ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.3 8.3 Localization Note

Go to the table of contents. 6.3.1 8.3.1 Definition

The Localization Note data category is used to communicate notes to localizers about a particular item of content.

This data category can be used for several purposes, including, but not limited to:

  • Tell the translator how to translate parts of the content

  • Expand on the meaning or contextual usage of a specific element, such as what a variable refers to or how a string will be used in the user interface

  • Clarify ambiguity and show relationships between items sufficiently to allow correct translation (e.g., in many languages it is impossible to translate the word " word" enabled " in isolation without knowing the gender, number number, and case of the thing it refers to.)

  • Indicate why a piece of text is emphasized (important, sarcastic, etc.)

Two types of informative notes are needed:

  • An alert contains information that the translator must has to read before translating a piece of text. Example: an instruction to the translator to leave parts of the text in the source language.

  • A description provides useful background information that the translator will refer to only if they wish. Example: a clarification of ambiguity in the source text.

Editing tools may offer an easy way to create this type of information. Translation tools can be made to recognize the difference between these two types of localization notes, and present the information to translators in different ways.

Go to the table of contents. 6.3.2 8.3.2 Implementation

The Localization Note data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on an individual element. For elements, the data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements, but excluding attributes.

GLOBAL: The locNoteRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required locNoteType attribute with the value "description" or "alert".

  • Exactly one of the following:

    • A locNote element that contains the note itself and allows for local ITS markup .

    • A locNotePointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that holds the localization note.

    • A locNoteRef attribute that contains a URI an IRI referring to the location of the localization note.

    • A locNoteRefPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that holds the URI IRI referring to the location of the localization note.

Example 29: The 30: The locNote element

The locNoteRule element associates the content of the locNote element with the message with the identifier 'DisableInfo' and flags it as important. This would also work if the rule was is in an external file, allowing it to provide notes without modifying the source document.

<myRes>
  <head>
    <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0" its:translate="no">
      <its:locNoteRule locNoteType="alert" selector="//msg[@id='DisableInfo']">
        <its:locNote>The variable {0} has three possible values: 'printer', 'stacker' and 'stapler
          options'.</its:locNote>
      </its:locNoteRule>
    </its:rules>
  </head>
  <body>
    <msg id="DisableInfo">The {0} has been disabled.</msg>
  </body>
</myRes>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locNote-element-1.xml ]

Example 30: The 31: The locNotePointer attribute

The locNotePointer attribute is a relative selector pointing to a node that holds the note.

<Res>
  <prolog>
    <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
      <its:translateRule selector="//msg/notes" translate="no"/>
      <its:locNoteRule locNoteType="description" selector="//msg/data" locNotePointer="../notes"/>
    </its:rules>
  </prolog>
  <body>
    <msg id="FileNotFound">
      <notes>Indicates that the resource file {0} could not be loaded.</notes>
      <data>Cannot find the file {0}.</data>
    </msg>
    <msg id="DivByZero">
      <notes>A division by 0 was going to be computed.</notes>
      <data>Invalid parameter.</data>
    </msg>
  </body>
</Res>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locNotePointer-attribute-1.xml ]

Example 31: The 32: The locNoteRef attribute

The locNoteRule element specifies that the message with the identifier 'NotFound' has a corresponding explanation note in an external file. The URI IRI for the exact location of the note is stored in the locNoteRef attribute.

<myRes>
  <head>
    <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
      <its:locNoteRule locNoteType="description" selector="//msg[@id='NotFound']"
                       locNoteRef="ErrorsInfo.html#NotFound"/>
    </its:rules>
  </head>
  <body>
    <msg id="NotFound">Cannot find {0} on {1}.</msg>
  </body>
</myRes>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locNoteRef-attribute-1.xml ]

Example 32: The 33: The locNoteRefPointer attribute

The locNoteRefPointer attribute contains a relative selector pointing to a node that holds the URI IRI referring to the location of the note.

<dataFile>
  <prolog>
    <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
      <its:locNoteRule locNoteType="description" selector="//data"
                       locNoteRefPointer="../@noteFile"/>
    </its:rules>
  </prolog>
  <body>
    <string id="FileNotFound" noteFile="Comments.html#FileNotFound">
      <data>Cannot find the file {0}.</data>
    </string>
    <string id="DivByZero" noteFile="Comments.html#DivByZero">
      <data>Invalid parameter.</data>
    </string>
  </body>
</dataFile>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locNoteRefPointer-attribute-1.xml ]

LOCAL: The following local markup is available for the Localization Note data category:

  • One Exactly one of the following:

    • A locNote attribute that contains the note itself.

    • A locNoteRef attribute that contains a URI an IRI referring to the location of the localization note.

  • An optional locNoteType attribute with the value "description" or "alert". If the locNoteType attribute is not present, the type of localization note will be assumed to be"description". be "description".

Example 33: The 34: The Localization Note data category expressed locally
<msgList xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" xml:space="preserve" its:version="2.0">
 <data name="LISTFILTERS_VARIANT" its:locNote="Keep the leading space!" its:locNoteType="alert">
  <value> Variant {0} = {1} ({2})</value>
 </data>
 <data its:locNote="%1\$s is the original text's date in the format YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM always in GMT">
  <value>Translated from English content dated <span id="version-info">%1\$s</span> GMT.</value>
 </data>
</msgList>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locNote-selector-2.xml ]

Example 34: The 35: The Localization Note data category expressed locally in HTML5 HTML
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=en>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <title>LocNote test: Default</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    "color: #000096"><p>This is a <strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"><span <span class="hl-attribute"

"color: #000096"><p>This is a 
    
"color: #000096"><span 
style="color: #F5844C">its-loc-note="Check with terminology engineer" its-loc-note-type=alert"hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>motherboard<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"></span>.<strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></p>

"hl-tag" style="color: #000096">>
     motherboard</span>.</p>

  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-locNote-html5-local-1.html ]

Note:

It is generally recommended to avoid using attributes to store text, however, in this specific case, the need to provide the notes without interfering with the structure of the host document is outweighing the drawbacks of using an attribute.

Go to the table of contents. 6.4 8.4 Terminology

Go to the table of contents. 6.4.1 8.4.1 Definition

The Terminology data category is used to mark terms and optionally associate them with information, such as definitions. This helps to increase consistency across different parts of the documentation. It is also helpful for translation.

Note:

Existing terminology standards such as [ISO 30042] and its derived formats are about coding terminology data, while the ITS Terminology data category simply allows to identify terms in XML documents and optionally to point to corresponding information.

Go to the table of contents. 6.4.2 8.4.2 Implementation

The Terminology data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on an individual element. There is no inheritance. The default is that neither elements nor attributes are terms.

GLOBAL: The termRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required term attribute with the value "yes" or "no".

  • None Zero or exactly one of the following:

    • A termInfoPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that holds the terminology information.

    • A termInfoRef attribute that contains a URI an IRI referring to the resource providing information about the term.

    • A termInfoRefPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that holds the URI IRI referring to the location of the terminology information.

Example 35: Usage 36: Usage of the termInfoPointer attribute
<text>
  <its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
    <its:termRule selector="//term" term="yes" termInfoPointer="id(@def)"/>
  </its:rules>
  <p>We may define <term def="TDPV">discoursal point of view</term> as 
    <gloss xml:id="TDPV">the relationship, expressed through discourse structure, between the
    implied author or some other addresser, and the fiction.</gloss></p>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-terms-selector-1.xml ]

Example 36: Usage 37: Usage of the termInfoRef attribute
<text>
  <its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
    <its:termRule selector="//term[1]" term="yes"
                  termInfoRef="#TDPV"/>
  </its:rules>
  <p>We may define <term>discoursal point of view</term>
as <gloss xml:id="TDPV">the relationship, expressed through discourse
structure, between the implied author or some other addresser,
and the fiction.</gloss></p>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-terms-selector-2.xml ]

Example 37: Usage 38: Usage of the termInfoRefPointer attribute
<text>
  <its:rules version="2.0"  xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
    <its:termRule selector="//term" term="yes"
                   termInfoRefPointer="@target"/>
  </its:rules>
  <p>We may define <term target="#TDPV">discoursal point of view</term>
as <gloss xml:id="TDPV">the relationship, expressed through discourse
structure, between the implied author or some other addresser,
and the fiction.</gloss></p>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-terms-selector-3.xml ]

LOCAL: The following local markup is available for the Terminology data category:

  • A term attribute with the value "yes" or "no".

  • An optional termInfoRef attribute that contains a URI an IRI referring to the resource providing information about the term.

  • An optional termConfidence attribute with the value of a rational number in the interval 0 to 1 (inclusive). The value follows the XML Schema double data type with the constraining facets minInclusive set to 0 and maxInclusive set to 1. termConfidence represents the confidence of the agents producing the annotation that the annotated unit is a term or not. 1 represents the highest level of confidence. termConfidence does not provide confidence information related to termInfoRef .

Any node selected by the terminology data category with the termConfidence attribute specified MUST be contained in an element with the annotatorsRef (or in HTML its-annotators-ref ) attribute specified for the Terminology data category. See Section 5.7: ITS Tools Annotation for more information.

Example 38: The 39: The Terminology data category expressed locally locally, including term information reference and confidence score.
<book its:version="2.0" xmlns:its=style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" 
  
"color: #F5844C">its:annotatorsRef=
style=
"color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #993300">"terminology|http://example.com/term-tool"
style="color: #000096">>
  <head>...</head>
  <body>
    ... 
    "color: #000096"><p>And he said: you need a new <strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"><quote <span class=
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:term=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"yes"<strong class=
"hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"><p>And he said: you need a new 
      
"color: #000096"><quote its:term="yes" 
        
"color: #F5844C">its:termInfoRef="http://www.directron.com/motherboards1.html"
        
"color: #F5844C">its:termConfidence="0.5"
"color: #000096">>motherboard</quote></p>
    ...
 </body> 
</book>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-terms-selector-4.xml ]

Example 39: The 40: The Terminology data category expressed locally in HTML5 HTML
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=en>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <title>Terminology test: default</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>We need a new <span its-term=yes>motherboard</span>
    </p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-term-html5-local-1.html ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.5 8.5 Directionality

Note:

At the time of writing, enhancements are being discussed in the context of HTML5 that are expected to change the approach to marking up Directionality , in particular to support content where directionality needs to be isolated from that of surrounding content. However, these enhancements are not finalized yet. This section therefore reflects directionality markup in [HTML 4.01] ; enhancements in HTML5 will be reflected in a future revision.

Go to the table of contents. 6.5.1 8.5.1 Definition

The Directionality data category allows the user to specify the base writing direction of blocks, embeddings embeddings, and overrides for the Unicode bidirectional algorithm. It has four values: "ltr", "rtl", "lro" and "rlo".

Note:

ITS defines only the values of the Directionality data category and their inheritance. The behavior of text labeled in this way may vary, according to the implementation. Implementers are encouraged, however, to model the behavior on that described in the CSS 2.1 specification or its successor. In such a case, the effect of the data category's values would correspond to the following CSS rules:

  • Data category value: "ltr" (left-to-right text)

    CSS rule: *[dir="ltr"] { unicode-bidi: embed; direction: ltr}

  • Data category value: "rtl" (right-to-left text)

    CSS rule: *[dir="rtl"] { unicode-bidi: embed; direction: rtl}

  • Data category value: "rlo" "lro" (left-to-right override)

    CSS rule: *[dir="lro"] { unicode-bidi: bidi-override; direction: ltr}

  • Data category value: "rlo" (right-to-left text) override)

    CSS rule: *[dir="rlo"] { unicode-bidi: bidi-override; direction: rtl}

More information about how to use this data category is provided by [Bidi Article] .

Go to the table of contents. 6.5.2 8.5.2 Implementation

[Ed. note: Examples for HTML5 need to be added; some values need to added to dir to reflect HTML5.]

The Directionality data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on an individual element. For elements, the data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements and attributes. The default is that both elements and attributes have the directionality of left-to-right.

GLOBAL: The dirRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required dir attribute with the value "ltr", "rtl", "lro" or "rlo".

Example 40: Document which 41: Document that needs global rules for directionality

In this document the right-to-left directionality is marked using a direction attribute with a value "rtlText".

<text xml:lang="en">
  <body>
    <par>In Hebrew, the title <quote xml:lang="he" direction="rtlText">פעילות
        הבינאום, W3C<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></quote> means <strong class=
"hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><quote>Internationalization Activity,
        W3C<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></quote>.<strong class="hl-tag"

      הבינאום, W3C</quote> means "Internationalization Activity, W3C",
      and the order of characters is <bdo direction='rtlText'>פעילות 
          הבינאום, W3C</bdo>.
style="color: #000096"></par>
  </body>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-dir-selector-1.xml ]

Example 41: The 42: The Directionality data category expressed with global rules

The dirRule element indicates that all elements with an attribute direction="rtlText" have right-to-left content, except that bdo elements with that attribute have right-to-left override content.

<its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
  <its:dirRule dir="rtl" selector="//*[@direction='rtlText']"/>
  "color: #000096"><its:dirRule dir="rlo" selector="//bdo[@direction='rtlText']"/>

</its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-dir-selector-2.xml ]

LOCAL: The following local markup is available for the Directionality data category:

  • A dir attribute with the value "ltr", "rtl", "lro" or "rlo".

Note:

[HTML 4.01] does not have the "lro" and "rlo" values for its dir attribute, so these values are not used for HTML documents. HTML uses an inline bdo element instead.

Example 42: The 43: The Directionality data category expressed locally

On the first quote element, the its:dir="rtl" attribute indicates a right-to-left content.

<text xml:lang="en" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0">
  <body>
    <par>In Arabic, the title <quote xml:lang="ar" its:dir="rtl">نشاط التدويل،
        W3C"color: #000096"></quote> means <strong class=
"hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><quote>Internationalization Activity,
      W3C<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></quote>.<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #000096"></quote> means "Internationalization Activity, W3C".
style="color: #000096"></par>
  </body>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-dir-selector-3.xml ]

Example 43: The 44: The Directionality data category expressed locally in HTML5 HTML
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=en>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <title>Dir test: Default</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>In Arabic, the title style="color: #000096"><quote <span class=
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">dir=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">rtl <span class=
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">lang=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">ar<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">>نشاط التدويل، W3C<strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></quote>
      means <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><quote>Internationalization Activity, W3C<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"></quote>.<strong class=

style="color: #000096"><q dir=rtl lang=ar>نشاط التدويل، W3C</q>
      means "Internationalization Activity, W3C".
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-dir-html5-local-1.html ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.6 Ruby 6.6.1 Definition The Ruby data category is used for a run of text that is associated with another run of text, referred to as the base text. Ruby text is used to provide a short annotation of the associated base text. It is most often used to provide a reading (pronunciation) guide. 6.6.2 Implementation [Ed. note: Examples for HTML5 need to be added;] The Ruby data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally. There is no inheritance. GLOBAL: The rubyRule element contains the following: A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which selects the nodes to which this rule applies. This is the ruby base text. An optional rubyPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that corresponds to the ruby element. An optional rpPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that corresponds to the ruby parenthesis. An optional rubyText element that contains the ruby text. An optional rtPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that corresponds to the ruby text. Note: Where legacy formats do not contain ruby markup, it is still possible to associate ruby text with a specified range of document content using the rubyRule element. Example 44: Adding ruby text with a rubyRule element <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><text <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><head> ... <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rubyRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/text/body/img[1]/@alt"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rubyText>World Wide Web Consortium<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></its:rubyText> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rubyRule> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><img <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">src=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"w3c_home.png" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">alt=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"W3C"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">/> ... <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></text> [Source file: examples/xml/EX-ruby-legacy-1.xml ] LOCAL: In a document, the Ruby data category is realized with a ruby element. It contains the following: The ruby base text or span element that contains the ruby base text and allows for local ITS markup . An rp element that contains the ruby parenthesis. It is used in case of simple markup to specify characters that can denote the beginning and end of ruby text when user agents do not have other ways to present ruby text distinctively from the base text. An rt element that contains the ruby text and allows for local ITS markup . All these elements share the attributes of the span element. Example 45: The Ruby data category expressed locally <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><text <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:version=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><head> ... <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><p>この本は <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:ruby> 慶応義塾大学 <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rp>(<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></its:rp><strong class= "hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rt>けいおうぎじゅくだいがく<strong class= "hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rt><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"><its:rp>)<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></its:rp> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:ruby>の歴史を説明するものです。<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></p> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></text> [Source file: examples/xml/EX-ruby-implementation-1.xml ] Note: The structure of the content model for the ruby element is identical with the structure of ruby markup as defined in [HTML5] . The structure of ruby defined in section 5.4 of [OpenDocument] is also compliant with ruby defined in this specification. [Ed. note: Need to reevaluate above statement related to ODF.] 6.7 8.6 Language Information

Go to the table of contents. 6.7.1 8.6.1 Definition

The element langRule is used to express the language of a given piece of content. The langPointer attribute points to the markup which that expresses the language of the text selected by the selector attribute. This markup MUST use values that conform to [BCP47] . The recommended way to specify language identification is to use xml:lang . The in XML, and lang in HTML. The langRule element is intended only as a fall-back mechanism for documents where language is identified with another construct.

Example 46: Pointing 45: Pointing to language information via langRule

The following langRule element expresses that the content of all p elements (including attribute values and textual content of child elements) are in the language indicated by mylangattribute , which is attached to the p elements, and expresses language using values conformant to [BCP47] .

<its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  <its:langRule selector="//p" langPointer="@mylangattribute"/>
</its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-lang-definition-1.xml ]

Note:

The Language Information data category only provides for rules to be expressed at a global level. Locally users are able to use xml:lang (which is defined by XML) XML), or lang in HTML, or an attribute specific to the format in question (as in Example 46 45 ).

In XML xml:lang is the preferable means of language identification. To ease the usage of xml:lang , a declaration for this attribute is part of the non-normative XML DTD and XML Schema document for ITS markup declarations. There is no declaration of xml:lang in the non-normative RELAX NG document for ITS, since in RELAX NG it is not necessary to declare attributes from the XML namespace.

Applying the Language Information data category to xml:lang attributes using global rules is not necessary, since xml:lang is the standard way to specify language information in XML. [XML 1.0] .

In HTML xml:lang lang is defined in terms of RFC 3066 or its successor ( [BCP47] is the "Best Common Practice" for mandated means of language identification and encompasses [RFC 3066] and its successors.) identification.

[Ed. note: Add something about HTML5 lang]

Go to the table of contents. 6.7.2 8.6.2 Implementation

The Language Information data category can be expressed only with global rules. For elements, the data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements and attributes. There is no default.

GLOBAL: The langRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required langPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that contains language information. If the attribute xml:lang is present or lang in HTML for the selected node, the value of the xml:lang attribute or lang in HTML MUST take precedence over the langPointer value.

Go to the table of contents. 6.8 8.7 Elements Within Text

Go to the table of contents. 6.8.1 8.7.1 Definition

The Elements Within Text data category reveals if and how an element affects the way text content behaves from a linguistic viewpoint. This information is for example relevant to provide basic text segmentation hints for tools such as translation memory systems. The values associated with this data category are:

  • "yes" : "yes": The element and its content are part of the flow of its parent element. For example the element strong in [XHTML 1.0] :

    <strong>Appaloosa horses</strong> have spotted coats.

  • "nested" : "nested": The element is part of the flow of its parent element, its content is an independent flow. For example the element fn in [DITA 1.0] :

    Palouse horses<fn>A Palouse horse is the same as an Appaloosa.</fn> have spotted coats.

  • "no" : "no": The element splits the text flow of its parent element and its content is an independent text flow. For example the element p when inside the element li in DITA or XHTML:

    <li>Palouse horses: <p>They have spotted coats.</p> <p>They have been bred by the Nez Perce.</p> </li>

Go to the table of contents. 6.8.2 8.7.2 Implementation

The Elements Within Text data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on an individual element. There is no inheritance.

For XML: The default is that elements are not within text.

For HTML: The default is that elements are not within text, with the following exceptions:

  • For the elements that are part of the HTML5 phrasing content the default is withinText="yes" , with the following exceptions:

    • For the elements iframe , noscript , script and textarea the default is withinText="nested" .

Example 46: Illustrates the defaults for the Elements Within Text data category in HTML.

In this document the different flows of text are the following (brackets indicating inline or nested elements):

- "Elements within Text defaults for HTML5"
- "The element p is not within text. But [the element em is]."
- "A button [Click Here] is also within text. But [] is nested."
- "The content of textarea"
- "Some additional text... [] []"
- "The script element is nested."
- "The noscript element is nested."


"color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html>
<html>  
"color: #000096"><head>
    
"color: #000096"><meta charset=utf-8> 
    
"color: #000096"><title>Elements within Text defaults for HTML5</title>
  
"color: #000096"></head>
  
"color: #000096"><body>
   
"color: #000096"><p>The element p is not within text. But <em>the element em is</em>.</p>
   
"color: #000096"><p>A button <button onclick="display()">Click Here</button> is also within text.
But <textarea>The content of textarea</textarea> is nested.</p>
Some additional text...

"color: #000096"><script><!--
function display() {
alert("The script element is nested."); }
//-->

"color: #000096"></script>

"color: #000096"><noscript>The noscript element is nested.</noscript>
  
"color: #000096"></body>

"color: #000096"></html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-within-text-defaults-html5-1.html ]

GLOBAL: The withinTextRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required withinText attribute with the value "yes", "no" or "nested".

Example 47: Specifying elements within text with a withinTextRule element
<its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  <its:withinTextRule withinText="yes" selector="//b | //em | //i"/>
</its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-within-text-implementation-1.xml ]

LOCAL: The following local markup is available for the Elements Within Text data category:

  • A withinText attribute with the values "yes", "no" or "nested".

Example 48: The Elements Within Text data category expressed locally
<text xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0">
  <body>
    <par>Text with <bold its:withinText="yes">bold</bold>.</par>
  </body>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-within-text-local-1.xml ]

Example 49: The Elements Within Text data category expressed locally in HTML5 HTML
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8> 
    <title>Within text test: Default</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>Text with <span its-within-text='yes'>bold</span>.</p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-within-text-local-html5-1.html ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.9 8.8 Domain

Go to the table of contents. 6.9.1 8.8.1 Definition

The Domain data category is used to identify the topic or subject of a given content. Such information allows to make for more relevant lingusitic linguistic choices during various processes.

Examples of usage include:

  • Allowing machine translation systems to select the most appropriate engine and rules to translate the content.

  • Providing a general indication of what terminology collection should be used is most suitable for use by a translator. translators.

This data category addresses various challenges:

  • Often domain-related information already exist exists in the document (e.g. (e.g., keywords in the HTML meta element). The Domain data category provides a mechanism to point to this information.

  • There are many flat or structured lists of domain related values, keywords, key phrases, classification codes, ontologies, etc. The Domain data category does not propose its own given list. Instead it provides a mapping mechanism to associate the values in the document with the values used by the consumer tool.

Go to the table of contents. 6.9.2 8.8.2 Implementation

The Domain data category can be expressed only with global rules. For elements, the data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements and attributes. There is no default.

The information provided by this data category is a comma-separated list of one or more values values, which is obtained by applying the following algorithm:

  • STEP 1: Set the initial value of the resulting string as a an empty string.

  • STEP 2: Get the list of nodes resulting of the evaluation of the domainPointer attribute.

  • STEP 3: For each node:

    • STEP 3-1: If the node value contains a COMMA (U+002C):

      • STEP 3-1-1: Split the node value into separate strings using the COMMA (U+002C) as separator.

      • STEP 3-1-2: For each string:

        • STEP 3-1-2-1: Trim the leading and trailing white spaces of the string.

        • STEP 3-1-2-2: If the first character of the value is an APOSTROPHE (U+0027) or a QUOTATION MARK (U+0022): Remove it.

        • STEP 3-1-2-3: If the last character of the value is an APOSTROPHE (U+0027) or a QUOTATION MARK (U+0022): Remove it.

        • STEP 3-1-2-4: If the value is empty: Go to STEP 3-1-2.

        • STEP 3-1-2-5: Check the domainMapping attribute to see if there is a mapping set for the string:

          • STEP 3-1-2-5-1. If one a mapping is found: Add the corresponding value to the result string.

          • Otherwise STEP 3-1-2-5-2. Else (if no mapping is found): Add the string to the result string.

    • If STEP 3-2: Else (if the node value does not contain a COMMA (U+002C): (U+002C)):

      • STEP 3-2-1: Trim the leading and trailing white spaces of the string.

      • STEP 3-2-2: If the first character of the value is an APOSTROPHE (U+0027) or a QUOTATION MARK (U+0022): Remove it.

      • STEP 3-2-3: If the last character of the value is an APOSTROPHE (U+0027) or a QUOTATION MARK (U+0022): Remove it.

      • STEP 3-2-4: If the value is empty: Go to STEP 3.

      • STEP 3-2-5: Check if there is a mapping for the string:

        • STEP 3-2-5-1: If one if a mapping is found: Add the corresponding value to the result string.

        • Otherwise STEP 3-2-5-2: Else (if no mapping is found): Add the string (in its original cases) to the result string.

  • STEP 4: Remove duplicated values from the resulting string.

  • STEP 5: Return the resulting string.

GLOBAL: The domainRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required domainPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that contains the domain information.

  • An optional domainMapping attribute that contains a comma separated list of mappings between values in the content and consumer tool specific values. The left part of the pair is part of corresponds to the source content and is unique within the mapping. mapping and case-sensitive. The right part of the mapping belongs to the consumer tool. Several left parts can map to a single right part. The values in the left or the right part of the mapping may contain spaces; in that case they MUST be delimited by quotation marks, that is pairs of APOSTROPHE (Unicode code point U+0027) (U+0027) or QUOTATION MARK (U+0023). (U+0022).

Note:

Although the domainMapping attribute it is optional, its usage is recommended. Many commercial machine translation systems use their own domain definitions; the domainMapping attribute will foster interoperability between these definitions and metadata items like DC.subject keywords or dcterms.subject in Web pages or other types of content.

Values used in the domainMapping attribute are arbitrary strings. In some consumer systems or existing content, the domain may be identified via an URI IRI like http://example.com/domains/automotive . The domainMapping allows for using URIs IRIs too. For the mapping, they are regarded as ordinary string values.

Note:

Although the focus of ITS 2.0, and some of the usage scenarios addressed in ITS 2.0 High-level Usage Scenarios ) is on “single engine” environments, ITS 2.0 (for example in the context of the Domain data category) can accommodate ""workflow/multi engine" scenarios.

Example:

  • A scenario involves Machine Translation (MT) engines A and B. The domain labels used by engine A follow the naming scheme A_123, the one for engine B follow the naming scheme B_456.

  • A domainMapping as follows is in place: domainMapping="'sports law' Legal, 'property law' Legal"

  • Engine A maps 'Legal' to A_4711, Engine B maps 'Legal' to B_42.

Thus, ITS does not encode a process or workflow (like "Use MT engine A with domain A_4711, and use MT engine B with domain A_42"). Rather, it encodes information that can be used in workflows.

Example 50: The domainRule element

The domainRule element expresses that the content of the HTML body element is in the domain expressed by the HTML meta element with the name attribute, value keywords . The domainPointer attribute points to that meta element.

<its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0"
           xmlns:h="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  <its:domainRule selector="/h:html/h:body"
                  domainPointer="/h:html/h:head/h:meta[@name='keywords']/@content"/>
</its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-domain-1.xml ]

Example 51: The domainRule element

The domainRule element expresses that the content of the HTML body element is in the domain expressed by associated values. The domainPointer attribute points to the values in the source content. The In this case it points to the meta elements with the name attribute set to "keywords" or to "dcterms.subject". These elements hold the values in their content attributes. The domainMapping attribute contains the comma separated comma-separated list of mappings. In the example, automotive "automotive" is available in the source content, and auto "auto" is used within the consumer tool, e.g. e.g., a machine translation system.

<its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0"
           xmlns:h="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  <its:domainRule selector="/h:html/h:body"
    domainPointer="color: #993300">"/h:html/h:head/h:meta[@name='dcterms.subject']/@content"

"color: #993300">"/h:html/h:head/h:meta[@name='dcterms.subject' or @name='keywords']/@content"

    domainMapping="automotive auto, medical medicine, 'criminal law' law, 'property law' law"/>
</its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-domain-2.xml ]

Note:

In source content, if available, it is recommended HTML, one possible way how to use dublin core subject as the metadata term for express domain information. In HTML, this can be achieved via information is a meta element with the name="keywords" name attribute or name="dcterms.subject" attribute. set to "keywords" (see standard metadata names in HTML ). Alternatively, following the process for other metadata names the extension value of "dcterms.subject" can be used. The usage of both "keywords" and "dcterms.subject" is shown in example Example 51 .

In the area of machine translation (e.g. (e.g., machine translation systems or systems harvesting content for machine translation training), there is no agreed upon set of value sets for domain. Nevertheless Nevertheless, it is recommended to use a small set of values both in source content and within consumer tools, to foster interoperability. If larger value sets are needed (e.g. (e.g., detailed terms in the law or medical domain), mappings to the smaller value set needed for interoperability should is to be provided. An example would be a domainMapping attribute for generalizing the law domain: domainMapping="'criminal law' law, 'property law' law, 'contract law' law" .

It is possible to have more than one domain associated with a piece of content. For example, if the consumer tool is a statistical machine translation engine, it could include corpora from all domains available in the source content in training the machine translation engine.

The consumer machine translation engine might choose to ignore the domain and take a one size fits all one-size-fits-all approach, or may be selective in which domains to use, based on the range of content marked with domain. For example, if the content has hundreds of sentences marked with domain 'automotive' "automotive" and 'medical', "medical", but only a couple of sentences marked with additional domains 'criminal law' "criminal law" and 'property law', "property law", the consumer tool may opt to include its domains 'auto' "auto" and 'medicine', "medicine", but not 'law', "law", since the extra training resources does do not justify the improvement in the output. Guidance about appropriate actions in such cases is beyond the scope of this specification.

Go to the table of contents. 6.10 Disambiguation 8.9 Text Analysis

[Ed. note: This data category is not completely stable yet.]

Go to the table of contents. 6.10.1 8.9.1 Definition

The Disambiguation Text Analysis data category is used to indicate occurrences of specific concepts that may require special handling in annotate content with lexical or conceptual information for the localization purpose of contextual disambiguation. This information can be provided by so-called text analysis software agents such as named entity recognizers, lexical concept disambiguators, etc., and is represented by either string valued or IRI references to possible resource descriptions. Example: A named entity recognizer provides the document. information that the string "Dublin" in a certain context denotes a town in Ireland.

This While text analysis can be done by humans, this data category is targeted more at software agents.

The information can be used for several purposes, including, but not limited to:

  • Informing translation systems a human agent such as a translator that this a certain fragment of text textual content (so-called “text analysis target”) may not be literally translated, but subject to follow specific proper name translation rules rules. Examples: proper names, brands, or official translations, as well as a very specific meaning of the phrases. officially regulated expressions.

  • Informing a software agent such as a content management and translation systems system about the conceptual type of the underlying a textual entity in order to enable processing based on a specific type of the target, for example, when handling special processing. Examples: places, personal names, product names names, or geographic names, chemical compounds, and protein names and similar. that are situated in a specific index.

Disambiguation The data category provides three pieces of annotation: confidence, entity type or concept class, entity identifier or concept identifier as specified in the following table.

Information Description Value Example Comments
Text analysis confidence The confidence of the agent (that produced the annotation)in its own computation The XML Schema double data type with the constraining facets minInclusive set to 0 and maxInclusive set to 1 0.5647346 The confidence value applies to two pieces of information (see the following rows in this table). This is opposed to termConfidence which is part of the Terminology data category. termConfidence represents the confidence in just a single piece of information: the decision whether something is a term or not (term). termConfidence does not relate to the confidence about additional information about the term that can be encoded with termInfoRef .
Entity type / concept class The type of entity, or concept class of the text analysis target IRI http://nerd.eurecom.fr/ontology#Location
Entity / concept identifier A unique identifier for the text analysis target Mode 1: Identifier (string value) of the collection source + identifier of the concept in that collection "Wordnet3.0" to identify the collection resource; "301467919" to identify a synset in Wordnet3.0 Mode 1 and mode 2 are mutually exclusive. They MUST NOT be used at the same time for the same text analysis target/node.
Mode 2: Identifier ( IRI) of the text analysis target http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dublin

Note:

The use case for Text Analysis is distinct from that for the Terminology data category. Text Analysis informs human agents or software agents in cases where either explicit terminology information is not (yet) available, or would not be appropriate, e.g. conceptual information for general vocabulary.

Text Analysis support is achieved by associating a selected fragment of text with an external web resource that can be referenced interpreted by a translation or linguistic language review agent. The agent in order may for example use the web resource to access disambiguate the correct meaning or lexical use choice of the text fragment, and thereby informing contributing to its correct translation. A fragment of text can be disambiguated at different granularities, i.e. as a lexical concept, as an ontology concept, or The web resource may as a named entity. As a lexical concept, the external reference can well provide information on appropriate synonyms and example usage, e.g. using service such as Wordnet. As an ontology concept, usage. This is for example the case if the web resource is WordNet [WordNet] . In the case of a concept class , the external reference can resource may provide a formal formalized conceptual definition within arranged in a hierarchical framework of related concepts. As In the case of a named entity, the external reference can resource may provide a full-fledged description of the associated real world entity the text intends to convey. For instance, the entity.

Extended example: The word 'City' in the fragment 'I am going to the City' may be disambiguated in enhanced by one of the WordNet following:

  • one of WordNet's synsets that can be represented by 'city', 'city'

  • an ontology ontological concept of a City 'City' that could represent a subclass of 'Populated Place' as a “PopulatedPlace” in the conceptual granularity level, or concept

  • the central area of a particular city, e.g. City of London, city – as interpreted in the entity granularity level. Linked data network, such as DBpedia, increasing interlink ontological and named an entity definitions instance (e.g., 'City of London')

Note:

A given document fragment can only be annotated once. When support for multiple annotations is necessary (e.g., when all three of the same things as authored annotations in different languages, offering a mechanism to locate translations from the source language description. Two types of disambiguation are needed to identify: [Ed. note: The previous sentence needs extended example above need to be re-worded] Disambiguation type class, which describes the type class of the underlying concept accommodated) NIF 2.0, TEI Stand-off Markup , or entity of the fragment. other so-called stand-off annotation mechanisms is better suitable.

Disambiguation, which describes the actual underlying Some external resource that conveys the intended meaning of the fragment. Text analysis engines, resources such as DBpedia also provide information for some ontological concepts and named entity recognizers, named entity, concept and word sense disambiguation components can offer an easy way to create this information. Content management tools can present definitions in multiple languages, and visualize this information or use it facilitates translation even more because a possible link traversal would allow a direct access to index their content. Machine translations systems may use it foreign language labels for training and translation when dealing with proper names and edge cases. named entities.

Go to the table of contents. 6.10.2 8.9.2 Implementation

The Disambiguation Text Analysis data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on an individual element. The information applies to the textual content of the element. There is no inheritance. The entity type follows inheritance rules.

[Ed. note:

Note:

This specification defines a normative way to represent text analysis information in XML and HTML locally . However, text analysis information can also be represented in other formats, e.g., JSON . The two last sentences above seem contradictory.] Internationalization Tag Set Interest Group maintains a description of such alternative serializations . Readers of this specification are encouraged to evaluate whether that description fulfills their needs and to provide comments in the ITS IG mailing list (public archive) .

GLOBAL: The disambiguationRule textAnalysisRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute that contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • Either: A disambigSource attribute that contains a string representing the disambiguation identifier collection source. Exactly At least one of the following:

    • A disambigIdent attribute that contains a string that represents the disambiguation identifier for the disambiguation target that is valid within the specified disambiguation source. A disambigIdentPointer taClassRefPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that represents a unique identifier for holds an IRI, which implements the disambiguation target. entity type / concept class information.

    • Or:
    • Exactly one of the following:

      [Ed. note: Below will need a test case in the test suite.] [Ed. note: Sentence below is awkward] When using a disambiguation rule, the user MUST use one of the use cases for disambiguation: specifying the target type, or specifying the target identity. For the latter, the user MUST use only one of the two addressing modes: Using disambigSource and one of disambigIdent or disambigIdentPointer to specify the collection and the identifier itself.
    • Using one of disambigIdentRef or disambigIdentRefPointer using a URI for the disambiguation target.
Example 52: Usage of disambigClassRef , disambigGranularity , disambigIdentRef , disambigSource and disambigIdent for both entity and word sense disambiguation. <span class="hl-directive" style= "color: maroon"><?xml version="1.0"?> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:disambiguationRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/text/body/p/*[@id='dublin']" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">its:disambigClassRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http:/nerd.eurecom.fr/ontology#Place" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">its:disambigGranularity=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"entity" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">its:disambigIdentRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dublin"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:disambiguationRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/text/body/p/*[@id='capital']" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">its:disambigGranularity=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"lexicalConcept" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">its:disambigSource=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"Wordnet3.0" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">its:disambigIdent=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"301467919"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><p><strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><span <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">id=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"dublin"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">>Dublin<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></span> is the <strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096"><span <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">id=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"capital"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">>capital<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></span> of Ireland.<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></p> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-disambiguation-global-1.xml ] For an example, see Example 54 .

LOCAL: The following local markup is available for the Disambiguation Text Analysis data category:

The user MUST Any node selected by the Text Analysis use only one of data category with the two addressing modes for "target identity" disambiguation: Using disambigSource and disambigIdent taConfidence to specify the collection and attribute specified MUST be contained in an element with the identifier itself. Using disambigIdentRef annotatorsRef using a URI (or in HTML its-annotators-ref ) attribute specified for the disambiguation target Text Analysis data category. For more information, see Section 5.7: ITS Tools Annotation .

Example 53: Local 52: Local mixed usage of Usage of disambigClassRef , disambigGranularity taClassRef , and disambigIdentRef taIdentRef in HTML.
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="color: #993300">"en"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>

"color: #993300">"en" its-annotators-ref="text-analysis|http://enrycher.ijs.si">

  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8" />
    "color: #000096"><title>Disambiguation: Local Test<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #000096"><title>Text analysis: Local Test
style="color: #000096"></title>
  </head>      
  <body>
    <p><span 
          "color: #F5844C">its-disambig-class-ref=<span class=
"hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"http://nerd.eurecom.fr/ontology#Place"  

"color: #F5844C">its-ta-confidence="0.7"

          "color: #F5844C">its-disambig-ident-ref=<span class=
"hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dublin" 

"color: #F5844C">its-ta-class-ref="http://nerd.eurecom.fr/ontology#Location"  

          "color: #F5844C">its-disambig-granularity=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"entity"<strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096">>Dublin<strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></span> 

"color: #F5844C">its-ta-ident-ref="http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dublin">Dublin</span> 

      is the <span 
          "color: #F5844C">its-disambig-source=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"Wordnet3.0" 

"color: #F5844C">its-ta-source="Wordnet3.0" 

          "color: #F5844C">its-disambig-ident=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"301467919" 

"color: #F5844C">its-ta-ident="301467919" 

          "color: #F5844C">its-disambig-granularity=<span class=
"hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"lexicalConcept"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">

"color: #F5844C">its-ta-confidence="0.5"

          >capital</span> of Ireland.</p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-disambiguation-html5-local-1.html examples/html5/EX-text-analysis-html5-local-1.html ]

Note:

For referring to disambigClassRef values, implementors expressing Entity type / concept class information, implementers are encouraged to use an existing repository of entity types such as long as they satisfy their requirements. For example, the Named Entity Recognition and Disambiguation ontology (NERD): http://nerd.eurecom.fr/ontology [NERD] ontology. Of course this requires that the repository satisfies the constraints imposed by the text analysis data category (e.g., use of IRIs).

Furthermore, valid Various target types depend on the disambiguation granularity: can be expressed via Entity type / concept class : types of entities are distinct from entities, types of lexical concepts concepts, or ontology concepts. While a relationship between these types may exist, this distinction exists, the specification does not prescribe a way of automatically inferring a disambiguation level from a one target type. type from another.

Note:

Text Analysis is primarily intended for textual content. Nevertheless, the data category can also be used in multimedia contexts. Example: objects on an image could be annotated with DBpedia IRIs.

When serializing the ITS mark-up Text Analysis data category markup in HTML5, the preferred HTML, one way is to serialize in the markup is RDFa Lite or Microdata Microdata. This serialization is due to the existing search and crawling infrastructure that is able to consume these formats. For other usage scenarios (e.g., adding text annotation to feed into a subsequent terminology process), using native ITS Text Analysis data category markup is preferred. In this kind of data. way, the markup easily can be stripped out again later.

Example 54: Local 53: Local mixed usage of entityTypeSourceRef , enttiyTypeRef taClassRefPointer , disambigSourceRef and taIdentRefPointer , disambigIdentRef in HTML+RDFa Lite.

See Example 55 54 for the companion document with the mapping data.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=en>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=

      "color: #000096"><link href=EX-text-analysis-html5-rdfa.xml rel=its-rules>
        <title>Entity: Local Test</title>
  </head>
  "color: #000096"><body <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">prefix=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"its: http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">>

"color: #000096"><body>

    <p><span property=style="color: #993300">name <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">resource=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">http:<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">//dbpedia.org/resource/Dublin typeof=http:/nerd.eurecom.fr/ontology#Place>Dublin<strong class="hl-tag"

style="color: #993300">"http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name"
      
"color: #F5844C">about="http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dublin"
      
"color: #F5844C">typeof="http:/nerd.eurecom.fr/ontology#Location">Dublin
style="color: #000096"></span> is 
      the capital of Ireland.</p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-disambiguation-html5-rdfa.html examples/html5/EX-text-analysis-html5-rdfa.html ]

Example 55: Companion 54:  Companion document, having the mapping data for Example 54 53 .
<its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
  "color: #000096"><its:disambiguationRule <span class=
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class=
"hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"//*[@typeof]" <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">entityTypeRefPointer=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"@typeof"<strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><its:disambiguationRule <span class=

"color: #000096"><its:textAnalysisRule 
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"//*[@resource]" <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">disambigIdentRefPointer=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"@resource"<strong class=

"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//*[@typeof and @about]" 
    
"color: #F5844C">taClassRefPointer="@typeof" taIdentRefPointer="@about"
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/>
</its:rules>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-disambiguation-html5-rdfa.xml examples/html5/EX-text-analysis-html5-rdfa.xml ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.11 8.10 Locale Filter

Go to the table of contents. 6.11.1 8.10.1 Definition

The Locale Filter data category specifies that a node is only applicable to certain locales.

This data category can be used for several purposes, including, but not limited to:

  • Include Including a legal notice only in locales for certain regions.

  • Drop Dropping editorial notes from all localized output.

The Locale Filter data category associates with each selected node a filter type and a list of extended language ranges conforming to [BCP47] .

The list is comma-separated and can include the wildcard extended language range "*". The list can also be empty. Whitespace surrounding language ranges is ignored.

Note:

The type can take the values "include" or "exclude":

  • To express A single wildcard "*" with a type "include" indicates that all locales should be included, one can use the selected content applies to all locales.

  • A single wildcard "*" with a type "exclude" indicates that the selected content applies to no locale.

  • An empty string with a type "include" indicates that the selected content applies to no locale.

  • An empty string with a type "exclude" indicates that the selected content applies to all locales.

  • Otherwise, with a type "include", the selected content applies to the locales for which the language range. To express that tag has a match in the list when using the Extended Filtering algorithm defined in [BCP47] .

  • If, instead, the type is "exclude", the selected content should applies to the locales for which the language tag does not be included have a match in any local, one can use the empty value. list when using the Extended Filtering algorithm defined in [BCP47] .

Go to the table of contents. 6.11.2 8.10.2 Implementation

The Locale Filter data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on an individual element. For elements, the data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements and attributes. The default is that the language range is "*". Implementations MUST NOT combine lists of language ranges from multiple rules or local attributes. "*" and the type is "include".

GLOBAL: The localeFilterRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required localeFilterList attribute with a comma-separated list of extended language ranges, or an empty string value.

  • An optional localeFilterType attribute with a value "include" or "exclude".

Example 56: The 55: The Locale Filter data category expressed globally

The This document contain three localeFilterRule element elements: The first one specifies that certain legal notice the elements should legalnotice with a role set to "Canada" apply only be shown in to the specified Canadian locales. Note The second one specifies that using the extended language range "*-CA" in the elements localeFilterList legalnotice attribute would cover with a role set to "nonCanada" apply to all Canadian locales, including various minority languages in Canada. locales that are not Canadian. And the third one specifies that none of the remark elements apply to any locale.

<book xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0">
  <info>
    <its:rules version="2.0">
      "color: #000096"><its:localeFilterRule 
        <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">selector=<span class="hl-value" style=

"color: #000096"><its:localeFilterRule selector=
"color: #993300">"//legalnotice[@role='Canada']"
        localeFilterList=style="color: #993300">"en-CA, fr-CA"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">/>

style="color: #993300">"*-CA"/>
      
"color: #000096"><its:localeFilterRule selector="//legalnotice[@role='nonCanada']"
        
"color: #F5844C">localeFilterList="*-CA" localeFilterType="exclude"/>
      
"color: #000096"><its:localeFilterRule selector="//remark"
        
"color: #F5844C">localeFilterList=""/>

    </its:rules>
    <legalnotice role="Canada">
      "color: #000096"><para>This legal notice is only for Canadian locales.<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #000096"><para>This notice is only for Canadian locales.
style="color: #000096"></para>
    </legalnotice>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></info>
<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></book>
[Source
file:
examples/xml/EX-locale-filter-selector-1.xml
]
Example
57: The
Locale
Filter
data
category
expressed
globally
The
localeFilterRule
element
specifies
that
editorial
remarks
should
be
removed
from
all
translations.
<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><section <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value"
style=
"color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><info>

    "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>

"color: #000096"><legalnotice role="nonCanada">

      "color: #000096"><its:localeFilterRule <span class=
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//remark" <span class=
"hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">localeFilterList=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">""<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">/>

"color: #000096"><para>This notice is for locales that are non-Canadian locales.</para>
    
"color: #000096"></legalnotice>

    "color: #000096"></its:rules>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></info>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"><remark>Note: This section will be written later.</remark>
  "color: #000096"></info>

"color: #000096"></section>

"color: #000096"></book>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locale-filter-selector-2.xml examples/xml/EX-locale-filter-selector-1.xml ]

LOCAL: The following local markup is available for the Locale Filter data category:

  • A localeFilterList attribute with a comma-separated list of extended language ranges, or an empty string value.

  • An optional localeFilterType attribute with a value "include" or "exclude".

Example 56: The Locale Filter data category expressed locally in HTML

In this example the Locale Filter data category is used to select different sections depending on whether the locale is a Canadian one or not.


"color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html>
<html> 
"color: #000096"><head>
  
"color: #000096"><meta charset=utf-8> 
  
"color: #000096"><title>Locale filter</title>
 
"color: #000096"></head>  
 
"color: #000096"><body> 
  
"color: #000096"><div its-locale-filter-list="*-ca">
   
"color: #000096"><p>Text for Canadian locales.</p>
  
"color: #000096"></div>
  
"color: #000096"><div its-locale-filter-list="*-ca" its-locale-filter-type="exclude">
   
"color: #000096"><p>Text for non-Canadian locales.</p>
  
"color: #000096"></div>
 
"color: #000096"></body>

"color: #000096"></html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-locale-filter-local-html5-1.html ]

Example 58: The 57: The Locale Filter data category expressed locally in XML
<book xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  <info>
    <legalnotice its:localeFilterList="en-CA, fr-CA">
      "color: #000096"><para>This legal notice is only for Canadian locales.<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #000096"><para>This legal notice is only for English and French Canadian locales.
style="color: #000096"></para>
    </legalnotice>
  </info>
</book>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locale-filter-attribute-1.xml ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.12 Translation Agent 8.11 Provenance

Go to the table of contents. 6.12.1 8.11.1 Definition

[Ed. note: Early draft of this data category; additional data categories for provenance might be added, or below definition might be changed. The definition of this data category is not yet reflected in the data category overview table in Section 6.1: Position, Defaults, Inheritance and Overriding of Data Categories .]

The Translation Provenance Agent data category is used to communicate the identity of agents that have been involved in the translation of the content or the revision of the translated contend. content. This allows translation and translation revision consumers, such as post-editors or post-editors, translation quality reviewers, or localization workflow managers, to assess how the performance of these agents may impact the quality of the translation. Translation and translation revision agents can be identified as a person, a piece of software or an organization that has been involved in providing a translation that resulted in the selected content.

This data category offers three types of information. First, it allows to identity identification of translation agents. Second, it allows to identify identification of revision agents. Third, if provenance information is needed that includes temporal or sequence information about translation processes (e.g. multiple revision cycles) or requires agents that support a wider range of activities, the data category offers a mechanism to refer to external, RDF-based external provenance descriptions based on information.

Note:

The specification does not define the format of external provenance information, but it is recommended that an open provenance or change-logging format be used, e.g. the W3C provenance data model [PROV-DM] .

Translation or translation revision tools, such as machine translation agents engines or CAT computer assisted translation tools, may offer an easy way to create this information. Translation tools can then present this information to post-editors or translation process workflow managers. Web applications may to present such information to consumers of translated documents.

6.12.2 Implementation [Ed. note: No agreement yet on whether such usage of global rules, that is for identifiyng just one or a small set of elements, is something to recommend. See also issue-51 .]

The Translation Agent Provenance data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on individual elements. For elements, the data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements, but excluding attributes. GLOBAL: The transProvRule element contains the following: A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which selects the nodes to which this rule applies. At least one of the following: Exactly one of the following: A translationProvenanceRecordsRef attribute. Its value is a URI pointing to the translationProvenanceRecord element containing the list defines seven pieces of translation provenance records related to the content selected via the selector attribute. information:

A translationProvenanceRecordsRefPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as translationProvenanceRecordsRef .
Information Description Value
Human translation provenance information specified by exactly one Identification of the following: A transPerson attribute that contains a string identifying a human translation agent. agent A transPersonRef attribute that contains string or an IRI referring to a resource that identifies a human translation agent. A transPersonPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with (only for the exact same semantics as transPerson . A transPersonRefPointer Ref attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as transPersonRef . attributes)
Organizational translation provenance information specified by exactly Identification of the following: A transOrg attribute that contains a string identifying an organization acting as a translation agent. agent A transOrgRef attribute that contains string or an IRI referring to a resource that identifies an organization acting as a translation agent. A transOrgPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with (only for the exact same semantics as transOrg. A transOrgRefPointer Ref attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as transOrgRef. Translation tool attributes)
Tool-related provenance related information specified by exactly one Identification of the following: A transTool attribute that contains a string identifying a software tool that was used in translating the selected content. content A transToolRef attribute that contains string or an IRI referring to a resource that identifies a software tool that was used in the translation. A transToolPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with (only for the exact same semantics as transTool. A transToolRefPointer Ref attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as transToolRef. attributes)
Human translation revision provenance related information specified by exactly one Identification of the following: A transRevPerson attribute that contains a string identifying a human translation revision agent. agent A transRevPersonRef attribute that contains string or an IRI referring to a resource that identifies a human translation revision agent. A transRevPersonPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with (only for the exact same semantics as transRevPerson . A transRevPersonRefPointer Ref attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as transRevPersonRef . attributes)
Organizational revision translation related provenance information specified by exactly Identification of the following: A transRevOrg attribute that contains a string identifying an organization acting as a translation revision agent. agent A transRevOrgRef attribute that contains string or an IRI referring to a resource that identifies an organization acting as a translation revison agent. A transRevOrgPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with (only for the exact same semantics as transRevOrg. A transRevOrgRefPointer Ref attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as transRevOrgRef. Translation tool attributes)
Tool-related revision provenance related information specified by exactly one Identification of the following: A transRevTool attribute that contains a string identifying a software tool that was used in revising the translation of the selected content. content A transRevToolRef attribute that contains string or an IRI referring to a resource that identifies a software tool that was used in revising the translation of the selected content. A transRevToolPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with (only for the exact same semantics as transRevTool. A transRevToolRefPointer Ref attribute that contains a relative selector pointing attributes)
Reference to a node with the exact same semantics as transRevToolRef. external provenance information A reference to external, RDF-based external provenance description specified by exactly one of the following: information A provRef attribute that that contains one or more space (U+0020) separated Provenance URI, each referring to a resource that identifies a different provenance entity record defined by the provenance data model . A provRefPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as provRef. [Ed. note: Below note is taken from the quality issue data category. Same question applies: Why should below only say "do not apply to HMTL as local markup"? There is local markup for direct annotation in XML too.] list of IRIs

Note:

The attributes translationProvenanceRecordsRefPointer , transPersonPointer , transPersonRefPointer , transOrgPointer , transOrgRefPointer , transToolPointer , transToolRefPointer , transRevPersonPointer , transRevPersonRefPointer , transRevOrgPointer , transRevOrgRefPointer , transRevToolPointer , transRevToolRefPointer tool related provenance and provRefPointer do tool related revision provenance pieces of information are not apply meant to HTML as local markup is provided express information about tools used for direct annotation in HTML. creating ITS annotations themselves. For this purpose, ITS 2.0 provides a separate mechanism. See Section 5.7: ITS Tools Annotation for details, especially the note on annotatorsRef usage scenarios .

Example 59: The Translation Agent Provenance data category used globally. This example shows how the provenance of the par and the legalnotice elements in this XML document is different. Therefore it is recorded in separate transProvRule elements. <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><text <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:dc=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><dc:creator>John Doe<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></dc:creator> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:transProvRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/text/body/par[@xml:id='p1']" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transToolRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.onlinemtex.com/2012/7/25/wsdl/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transOrg=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevToolRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrg=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">provRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:transProvRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"/text/body/legalnotice" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transPersonPointer=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"/text/dc:creator[1]" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"Tommy Atkins" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRefPointer=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"@postediting-by" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">provRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">" http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354 http://www.vistatec.com/job-12-7-15-X31/reviewed/prov/re8573469"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><title>Translation Revision Provenance Agent: Global Test in XML<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></title> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><par <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"p1"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> This paragraph was translated from the machine.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></par> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><legalnotice <span class= "hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">postediting-by=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.vistatec.com/"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">>This text was translated directly by a person.<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></legalnotice> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></text> Go to the table of contents. [Source file: examples/xml/EX-translation-agent-provenance-global-1.xml ] Example 60: The Translation Agent 8.11.2 Implementation

The Provenance data category used globally can be expressed with pointer attributes. This example expresses global rules, or locally on individual elements. For elements, the same provenance data category information as Example 59 , but inherits to the provenance information for textual content of the par element is stored differently, inside a format specific element my-provenance-info . element, including child elements and attributes.

GLOBAL: The first transProvRule provRule element and its attributes transToolRefPointer , transOrgPointer , transRevToolRefPointer , transRevOrgPointer contains the following:

  • A required selector and provRefPointer attribute. It contains an absolute selector that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A provenanceRecordsRefPointer are used attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to point a node containing a list of provenance records . These are related to the information inside that my-provenance-info content selected via the selector element. <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><text <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:dc=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><dc:creator>John Doe<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></dc:creator> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><my-provenance-info> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><transToolURI>http://www.onlinemtex.com/2012/7/25/wsdl/<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></transToolURI> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><transOrg>acme-CAT-v2.3<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></transOrg> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><transRevisionToolURI>http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></transRevisionToolURI> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><transRevisionOrganisation>acme-CAT-v2.3<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></transRevisionOrganisation> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><rdfProvenanceRecords>http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></rdfProvenanceRecords> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></my-provenance-info> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:transProvRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/text/body/par[@xml:id='p1']" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transToolRefPointer=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/text/my-provenance-info/transToolURI" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transOrgPointer=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"/text/my-provenance-info/transOrg" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevToolRefPointer=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/text/my-provenance-info/transRevisionToolURI" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrgPointer=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/text/my-provenance-info/transRevisionOrganisation" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">provRefPointer=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"/text/my-provenance-info/rdfProvenanceRecords"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:transProvRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"/text/body/legalnotice/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transPersonPointer=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"/text/dc:creator[1]" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"Tommy Atkins" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRefPointer=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"@postediting-by" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">provRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354 http://www.vistatec.com/job-12-7-15-X31/reviewed/prov/re8573469"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><title>Translation Revision Provenance Agent: Global Test in XML<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></title> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><par <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"p1"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> This paragraph was translated from the machine.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></par> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><legalnotice <span class= "hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">postediting-by=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.vistatec.com/"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">>This text was translated directly by a person.<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></legalnotice> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></text> [Source file: examples/xml/EX-translation-agent-provenance-global-2.xml ] attribute.

    [Ed. note: Not sure if we need the standoff version globally. We don't have it with quality either. Thoughts?]
Example 61: The Translation Agent 58: The Provenance data category used globally with standoff provenance records.

This example expresses the same plus some additional provenance information as Example 59 , but the provenance information is realized in a standoff within manner using translationProvenanceRecords provenanceRecords elements. The transProvRule provRule elements element specifies that for any element with the a translationProvenanceRecordsRef ref attributes point to attribute that translationProvenanceRecords ref related attribute holds a reference to the par and legalnotice an associated provenanceRecords elements. element where the provenance information is listed. The legalnotice element has been revised two times. Hence, the related translationProvenanceRecords provenanceRecords element contains two translationProvenanceRecord provenanceRecord child elements. The second translationProvenanceRecord child element provides information about the second revison.

<text xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
  xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0">
  <dc:creator>John Doe</dc:creator>
  "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecords <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"pr1"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>

"color: #000096"><its:provenanceRecords xml:id="pr1">

    "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord

"color: #000096"><its:provenanceRecord

      "color: #F5844C">transToolRef=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"http://www.onlinemtex.com/2012/7/25/wsdl/"

"color: #F5844C">toolRef="http://www.example.onlinemtex.com/2012/7/25/wsdl/"

      "color: #F5844C">transOrg=<span class="hl-value" style=

"color: #F5844C">org=
"color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3"
      "color: #F5844C">transRevToolRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download"

"color: #F5844C">revToolRef="http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download"

      "color: #F5844C">transRevOrg=<span class="hl-value" style=

"color: #F5844C">revOrg=
"color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3"
      provRef="http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354"/>
  "color: #000096"></its:translationProvenanceRecords>

"color: #000096"></its:provenanceRecords>

  "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecords <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"pr2"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>

"color: #000096"><its:provenanceRecords xml:id="pr2">

    "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord

"color: #000096"><its:provenanceRecord

      "color: #F5844C">transPerson=<span class="hl-value" style=

"color: #F5844C">person=
"color: #993300">"John Doe"
      "color: #F5844C">transOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/"

"color: #F5844C">orgRef="http://www.legaltrans-ex.com"

      "color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"Tommy Atkins"

"color: #F5844C">revPerson="Tommy Atkins"

      "color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"http://www.vistatec.com/"

"color: #F5844C">revOrgRef="http://www.example.myorg.com"

      provRef="color: #993300">" http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354 http://www.vistatec.com/job-12-7-15-X31/reviewed/prov/re8573469"<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #993300">"http://www.example.myorg.com/job-12-7-15-X31/reviewed/prov/re8573469"
style="color: #000096">/>
    "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord

"color: #000096"><its:provenanceRecord

      "color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"John Smith"

"color: #F5844C">revPerson="John Smith"

      "color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"http://john-smith.qa.example.com"<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #F5844C">revOrgRef="http://john-smith.qa.example.com"
style="color: #000096">/>
  "color: #000096"></its:translationProvenanceRecords>

"color: #000096"></its:provenanceRecords>

  "color: #000096"><its:rules>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><its:transProvRule <span class=
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class=
"hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"/text/body/par[@xml:id='p1']"
      <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">translationProvenanceRecordsRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"#pr1"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">/>

"color: #000096"><its:rules version="2.0">

    "color: #000096"><its:transProvRule <span class=

"color: #000096"><its:provRule 
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"/text/body/legalnotice/"
      <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">translationProvenanceRecordsRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"#pr2"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">/>

"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//*[@ref]" provenanceRecordsRefPointer="@ref"/>

  </its:rules>
  <title>Translation Revision Provenance Agent: Global Test in XML</title>
  <body>
    <par "color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"p1"<strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #F5844C">ref="#pr1"
"color: #000096">> This paragraph was translated from the machine.</par>
    <legalnotice postediting-by=style="color: #993300">"http://www.vistatec.com/"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">>This text was

style="color: #993300">"http://www.example.myorg.com" ref="#pr2">This text was

      translated directly by a person.</legalnotice>
  </body>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-translation-agent-provenance-global-3.xml ] Example 62: Annotating provenance information in HTML5 with transProvRule element The transProvRule element resides in a separate file ( Example 63 ) that associates the provenance information with a selected span of content in the HTML document. <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><html <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">lang=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">en<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><meta <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">charset=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">utf-8<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><title>Example<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></title> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><link <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">href=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">EX-translation-agent-provenance-rule-html5-global-l.xml <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">rel=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">its-rules<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></head> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><p <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">id=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"p1"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> This paragraph was translated from the machine.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></p> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><p <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">class=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"legal-notice"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">>This text was translated directly by a person.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></p> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></html> [Source file: examples/html5/EX-translation-agent-provenance-html5-global-1.html ] Example 63: External rule document associated with an HTML5 document This document is used in Example 62 : <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xmlns:h=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:transProvRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/h:html/h:body/h:p[@id='p1']" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transToolRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.onlinemtex.com/2012/7/25/wsdl/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transOrg=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevToolRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrg=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">provRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:transProvRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/h:html/h:body/h:p[@class='legal-notice']" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transPerson=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"John Doe" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"Tommy Atkins" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.vistatec.com/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">provRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">" http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354 http://www.vistatec.com/job-12-7-15-X31/reviewed/prov/re8573469"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules> [Source file: examples/html5/EX-translation-agent-provenance-rule-html5-global-1.xml examples/xml/EX-provenance-global-1.xml ]

LOCAL: Using the inline markup to represent the data category locally is limited to a single occurrence for a given content (e.g. (e.g., one cannot have different transToolRef toolRef attributes applied to the same span of text because the inner-most one would override the others). A local standoff markup is provided to allow such cases.

The following local markup is available for the Translation Agent Provenance data category:

  • Either (inline markup): at least one of the following, with the same semantics as the corresponding attributes at the transProvRule element: following attributes:

  • Or (standoff markup):

    • A translationProvenanceRecordsRef provenanceRecordsRef attribute. Its value is a URI an IRI pointing to the translationProvenanceRecords provenanceRecords element containing the list of provenance information records related to this content.

    • An element translationProvenanceRecords (or <span its-translation-provenance-records> in HTML) provenanceRecords , which contains:

    Important:

    Note:

    Ideally the order of provenanceRecord elements within a provenanceRecords element reflects the order with which they were added to the document, with the most recently added one listed first.

    When the attributes transPerson person , transPersonRef personRef , transOrg org , transOrgRef orgRef , transTool tool , transToolRef toolRef , transRevPerson revPerson , transRevPersonRef revPersonRef , transRevOrg revOrg , transRevOrgRef revOrgRef , transRevTool revTool , transRevToolRef revToolRef and provRef (or their equivalent representations) are used in in a standoff manner, the information they carry pertains to the content of the element that refers to the standoff annotation, not to the content of the element translationProvenanceRecord (or <span translation-provenance-record> provenanceRecord in HTML) where they are declared.

    The order of

    In HTML the standoff markup MUST either be stored inside a translationProvenanceRecord script elements element in the same HTML document, or be linked from any provenanceRecordsRef to an external XML or HTML file with the standoff inside. If standoff is inside a translationProvenanceRecords script is significant: it reflects element that element MUST have a type attribute with the temporal order value application/its+xml . Its id attribute MUST be set to the same value as the xml:id attribute of revisions. This is demonstrated e.g. in Example 68 . the provenanceRecords element it contains.

Example 64: Annotating 59: Annotating provenance information in XML with local inline markup

The provenance related attributes at the par and legalnotice elements are used to associate the provenance information directly with the content of theses these elements.

<text xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
  xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0">
  <title>Translation Revision Provenance Agent: Local Test in XML</title>
  <body>
    <par "color: #F5844C">its:transToolRef=<span class="hl-value"
style=

"color: #F5844C">its:toolRef=
"color: #993300">"http://www.onlinemtex.com/2012/7/25/wsdl/"
      "color: #F5844C">its:transOrg=<span class="hl-value" style=

"color: #F5844C">its:org=
"color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3"
      "color: #F5844C">its:transRevToolRef=<span class="hl-value"

"color: #F5844C">its:revToolRef=
style="color: #993300">"http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download"
      "color: #F5844C">its:transRevOrg=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3"

"color: #F5844C">its:revOrg="acme-CAT-v2.3"

      its:provRef="color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354"<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #993300">"http://www.example.lsp1.com/prov/e6354 http://www.example.lsp2.com/prov/e7738"
style="color: #000096">
      >This paragraph was translated from the machine.</par>
    <legalnotice "color: #F5844C">its:transPerson=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"John Doe"

"color: #F5844C">its:person="John Doe"

      "color: #F5844C">its:transOrgRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/"

"color: #F5844C">its:orgRef="http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/"

      "color: #F5844C">its:transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"Tommy Atkins"

"color: #F5844C">its:provRef="http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354"

      "color: #F5844C">its:transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"http://www.vistatec.com/"

"color: #F5844C">its:revPerson="Tommy Atkins"

      "color: #F5844C">its:provRef=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354 http://www.vistatec.com/job-12-7-15-X31/reviewed/prov/re8573469"<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #F5844C">its:revOrgRef="http://www.example.myorg.com"
style="color: #000096">
      >This text was translated directly by a person.</legalnotice>
  </body>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-translation-agent-provenance-local-1.xml examples/xml/EX-provenance-local-1.xml ]

Example 65: Annotating 60: Annotating provenance information in HTML with local inline markup

In this example several spans of content are associated with provenance information.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=en>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    "color: #000096"><title>Translation Revision Provenance Agent: Local Test in HTML5<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #000096"><title>Provenance Agent: Local Test in HTML5
style="color: #000096"></title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p "color: #F5844C">its-trans-tool-ref=<span class="hl-value"
style=

"color: #F5844C">its-tool-ref=
"color: #993300">"http://www.onlinemtex.com/2012/7/25/wsdl/"
      "color: #F5844C">its-trans-org=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3" <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">its-transRevToolRef=<span class=
"hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download"
      <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its-trans-rev-org=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3"

"color: #F5844C">its-org="acme-CAT-v2.3"

      its-prov-ref="color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">> This
      paragraph was translated from the machine.<strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></par>

"color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354"
      
"color: #F5844C">its-rev-org="acme-CAT-v2.3"
      >This paragraph was translated from the machine.</p>

    <p class="color: #993300">"legal-notice" <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">its-trans-person=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"John Doe" <span class=
"hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its-transOrgRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/"
      <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its-trans-rev-person=<span class="hl-value"

"color: #993300">"legal-notice"
     
"color: #F5844C">its-person="John Doe"
     
"color: #F5844C">its-org-ref="http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/"
     
"color: #F5844C">its-prov-ref="http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354"
     
"color: #F5844C">its-rev-person=
style="color: #993300">"Tommy Atkins" "color: #F5844C">its-transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"http://www.vistatec.com/"
      <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its-prov-ref=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354 http://www.vistatec.com/job-12-7-15-X31/reviewed/prov/re8573469"<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #F5844C">its-rev-org-ref="http://www.example.myorg.com"
style="color: #000096">
      >This text was translated directly by a person.<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"></legalnotice>

     >This text was translated directly by a person.</p>

  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-translation-agent-provenance-html5-local-1.html examples/html5/EX-provenance-html5-local-1.html ]

Example 66: Annotating 61: Annotating provenance information in XML HTML with local standoff markup

The following example shows a document using local standoff markup to encode several pieces of provenance information. The par and legalnotice p elements delemit delimit the content to markup. They hold translationProvenanceRecordsRef its-provenance-records-ref attributes that point to the related translationProvenanceRecords elements. The legalnotice element has been revised two times. Hence, the related translationProvenanceRecords element contains two translationProvenanceRecord child elements. The second translationProvenanceRecord child element provides information about the second revison. <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><text <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:dc=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:version=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecords <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"pr1"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transToolRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.onlinemtex.com/2012/7/25/wsdl/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transOrg=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevToolRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrg=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">provRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:translationProvenanceRecords> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecords <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"pr2"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">transPerson=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"John Doe" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"Tommy Atkins" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.vistatec.com/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">provRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">" http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354 http://www.vistatec.com/job-12-7-15-X31/reviewed/prov/re8573469"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"John Smith" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://john-smith.qa.example.com"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:translationProvenanceRecords> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><title>Translation Revision Provenance Agent: Local Test in XML<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></title> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><par <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">its:translationProvenanceRecordsRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"#pr1"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> This paragraph was translated from the machine.<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></par> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><legalnotice <span class= "hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">its:translationProvenanceRecordsRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"#pr2"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">>This text was translated directly by a person.<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></legalnotice> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></text> [Source file: examples/xml/EX-translation-agent-provenance-local-2.xml ] Example 67: Annotating provenance information in XML with local standoff markup and a global rule The following example shows a document using local standoff markup to encode several pieces of provenance information. But because, in this case, the par or the legal notice elements do not allow attributes from another namespace we cannot use translationProvenanceRecordsRef directly. Instead, a global rule is used to map the function of translationProvenanceRecordsRef to a non-ITS construct, here the ref attribute of the par or legal notice elements. <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><text <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:dc=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:version=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><dc:creator>John Doe<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></dc:creator> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecords <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"pr1"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transToolRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.onlinemtex.com/2012/7/25/wsdl/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transOrg=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevToolRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrg=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">provRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:translationProvenanceRecords> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecords <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"pr2"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">transPerson=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"John Doe" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"Tommy Atkins" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.vistatec.com/" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">provRef=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354 http://www.vistatec.com/job-12-7-15-X31/reviewed/prov/re8573469"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"John Smith" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://john-smith.qa.example.com"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:translationProvenanceRecords> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:transProvRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"/text/body/par | /text/body/legalnotice" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">translationProvenanceRecordsRefPointer=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"@ref"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><title>Translation Revision Provenance Agent: Global Test in XML<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></title> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><par <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">ref=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"#p1"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> This paragraph was translated from the machine.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></par> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><legalnotice <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"#p2"<strong class= "hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">>This text was translated directly by a person.<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></legalnotice> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></body> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></text> [Source file: examples/xml/EX-translation-agent-provenance-local-3.xml ] Example 68: Annotating provenance information in HTML with local standoff markup The following example shows a document using local standoff markup to encode provenance information. The p elements delimits the content to markup. It holds a its-translation-provenance-records-ref attribute that points to the standoff information inside the script element. elements.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <title>Test</title>
    <script id="color: #993300">its-standoff-no-2 <span class=
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">application<strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/xml>

"color: #993300">pr1 type=application/its+xml>

      "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecords <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"pr1"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>

"color: #000096"><its:provenanceRecords xml:id="pr1" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">

        "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">transToolRef=<span class="hl-value" style=

"color: #000096"><its:provenanceRecord
         
"color: #F5844C">toolRef=
"color: #993300">"http://www.onlinemtex.com/2012/7/25/wsdl/" 
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">transOrg=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3"
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">transRevToolRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download" 
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">transRevOrg=<span class="hl-value" style=

         "color: #F5844C">org=
"color: #993300">"acme-CAT-v2.3"
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=

         provRef="color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">/>

"color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/production/prov/e6354"
         
"color: #F5844C">revToolRef="http://www.mycat.com/v1.0/download" 
         
"color: #F5844C">revOrg="acme-CAT-v2.3" />

      "color: #000096"></its:translationProvenanceRecords>

"color: #000096"></its:provenanceRecords>       
    
"color: #000096"></script>
    
"color: #000096"><script id=pr2 type=application/its+xml>

      "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecords <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"pr2"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>

"color: #000096"><its:provenanceRecords xml:id="pr2" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">

        "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">transPerson=<span class="hl-value" style=

"color: #000096"><its:provenanceRecord
         
"color: #F5844C">person=
"color: #993300">"John Doe"
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">transOrgRef=<span class="hl-value" style=

         "color: #F5844C">orgRef=
"color: #993300">"http://www.legaltrans-ex.com/"
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"Tommy Atkins" 
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"http://www.vistatec.com/"
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=

         provRef="color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354 http://www.vistatec.com/job-12-7-15-X31/reviewed/prov/re8573469"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">/>

"color: #993300">"http://www.examplelsp.com/excontent987/legal/prov/e6354"
         
"color: #F5844C">revPerson="Tommy Atkins" 
         
"color: #F5844C">revOrgRef="http://www.example.myorg.com" />

        "color: #000096"><its:translationProvenanceRecord
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">transRevPerson=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"John Smith" 
            <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">transRevOrgRef=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"http://john-smith.qa.example.com"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">/>

"color: #000096"><its:provenanceRecord
         
"color: #F5844C">revPerson="John Smith" 
         
"color: #F5844C">revOrgRef="http://john-smith.qa.example.com" />
        
"color: #000096"></its:provenanceRecords>

      "color: #000096"></its:translationProvenanceRecords>       
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"></script>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p "color: #F5844C">its-translation-provenance-records-ref=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"#pr1"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">> This paragraph was translated from the machine.<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #F5844C">its-provenance-records-ref="#pr1">This paragraph was translated from the machine.
style="color: #000096"></p>
    <p "color: #F5844C">its-translation-provenance-records-ref=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"#pr2"<strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #F5844C">its-provenance-records-ref="#pr2"
"color: #000096">>This text was translated directly by a person.</p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-translation-agent-provenance-html5-local-2.html examples/html5/EX-provenance-html5-local-2.html ]

[Ed. note: TODO for above: Finalize how HTML should work: use its-* attributes for standoff markup or markup inside the script element.]
6.13 TextAnalyisAnnotation The TextAnalyisAnnotation data category will be defined in an updated version of this document. For details of the proposed data category, see the ITS 2.0 Requirements document .

Go to the table of contents. 6.14 8.12 External Resource

Go to the table of contents. 6.14.1 8.12.1 Definition

The External Resource data category indicates that a node represents or references potentially translatable data in a resource outside the document. Examples of such resources are external images and audio or video files.

Go to the table of contents. 6.14.2 8.12.2 Implementation

The External Resource data category can be expressed only with global rules. There is no inheritance. There is no default.

GLOBAL: The externalResourceRefRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required externalResourceRefPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node that provides the URI IRI of the external resource.

Example 69: The 62: The externalResourceRefRule element

The externalResourceRefRule element expresses that the imagedata , audiodata and videodata elements contain references to external resources. These references are expressed via a fileref attribute. The externalResourceRefPointer attribute points to that attribute.

<doc xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"
  xmlns:db="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook">
  <its:rules version="2.0">
    <its:externalResourceRefRule
      selector="//db:imagedata | //db:audiodata |  //db:videodata"
      externalResourceRefPointer="@fileref"/>
  </its:rules>
  <db:mediaobject>
    <db:videoobject>
      <db:videodata fileref="movie.avi"/>
    </db:videoobject>
    <db:imageobject>
      <db:imagedata fileref="movie-frame.gif"/>
    </db:imageobject>
    <db:textobject>
      <db:para>This video illustrates the proper way to assemble an inverting
        time distortion device. </db:para>
      <db:warning>
        <db:para> It is imperative that the primary and secondary temporal
          couplings not be mounted in the wrong order. Temporal catastrophe is
          the likely result. The future you destroy may be your own. </db:para>
      </db:warning>
    </db:textobject>
  </db:mediaobject>
</doc>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-externalresource-1.xml ]

Example 70: Two 63: Two externalResourceRefRule elements used for external resources associated with HTML5 HTML video elements

The two externalResourceRefRule elements select the src and the poster attributes at HTML5 HTML video elements. These attributes identify different external resources, and at the same time contain the references to these resources. For this reason, the externalResourceRefPointer attributes point to the value of src and poster respectively. The underlying HTML5 HTML document is given in Example 71 64 .

<its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"
  xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  <its:externalResourceRefRule selector="//html:video/@src"
    externalResourceRefPointer="."/>
  <its:externalResourceRefRule selector="//html:video/@poster"
    externalResourceRefPointer="."/>
</its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-externalresource-2.xml ]

Example 71: An HTML5 64: An HTML document that can be used for Example 70 63 .
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=en>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <title>Video element example</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <video
      height=360
      poster="color: #993300">video-image.png

"color: #993300">http://www.example.com/video-image.png

      src="color: #993300">http:<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">//www.example.com/video/v2.mp
      width=640>

"color: #993300">http://www.example.com/video/v2.mp
      
"color: #F5844C">width=640>

      "color: #000096"><p>If your browser doesn't support the <strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"><code>video<strong class=
"hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></code> element, you can <strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"><a <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">href=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">http:<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">//www.example.com/video/v2.mp>download the video<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #000096"><p>If your browser doesn't support 
        the <code>video</code> element, you can 
        
"color: #000096"><a href=http://www.example.com/video/v2.mp>download the video
style="color: #000096"></a> instead.</p>
    </video>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-externalresource-html5-1.html ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.15 8.13 Target Pointer

Go to the table of contents. 6.15.1 8.13.1 Definition

Some formats, such as those designed for localization or for multilingual resources, hold the same content in different languages inside a single document. The Target Pointer data category is used to associate the node of a given source content (i.e. (i.e., the content to be translated) and the node of its corresponding target content (i.e. (i.e., the source content translated into a given target language).

This specification makes no provision regarding the presence of the target nodes or their content: A target node may or may not exist and it may or may not have content.

This data category can be used for several purposes, including but not limited to:

  • Extract the source content to translate and put back the translation at its proper location.

  • Compare source and target content for quality verification.

  • Re-use Reuse existing translations when localizing the new version of an existing document.

  • Access aligned bi-lingual content to build memories, or to train machine translation engines.

Note:

In general, it is recommended to avoid developing formats where the same content is stored in different languages in the same document, unless except for very specific use cases. See the best practices “ Working with multilingual documents ” from [XML i18n BP] for further guidance.

Go to the table of contents. 6.15.2 8.13.2 Implementation

The Target Pointer data category can be expressed only with global rules. There is no inheritance. There is no default.

GLOBAL: The targetPointerRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required targetPointer attribute. It contains a relative selector that points to the node for the target content corresponding to the selected source node.

Note:

The source node and the target node may be of different types, but the target node must be able has to contain the same content of as the source node (e.g. (e.g., an attribute node cannot be the target node of a source node that is an element with children).

Example 72: Defining 65: Defining the target location of a source content with the targetPointerRule element
<file>
  <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
    <its:translateRule selector="/file" translate="no"/>
    <its:translateRule selector="//source" translate="yes"/>
    <its:targetPointerRule selector="//source" "color: #F5844C">targerPointer=<span class="hl-value" style=

"color: #F5844C">targetPointer=
"color: #993300">"../target"/>
  </its:rules>
  <entry id="one">
    <source>Remember last folder</source>
    <target/>
  </entry>
  <entry id="two">
    <source>Custom file filter:</source>
    <target/>
  </entry>
</file>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-target-pointer-global-1.xml ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.16 Id 8.14 ID Value

Go to the table of contents. 6.16.1 8.14.1 Definition

The Id ID Value data category indicates a value that can be used as unique identifier for a given part of the content.

The recommended way to specify a unique identifier is to use xml:id [XML ID] or id in HTML (See the best practice “ Defining markup for unique identifiers ” from [XML i18n BP] ). The idValueRule element is intended only as a fall-back mechanism for documents where in which unique identifiers are available with another construct.

Providing a unique identifier that is maintained in the original document can be use useful for several purposes, for example:

  • Allow automated alignment between different versions of the source document, or between source and translated documents.

  • Improve the confidence in leveraged translation for exact matches.

  • Provide back-tracking backtracking information between displayed text and source material when testing or debugging.

Note:

  • The Id ID Value data category only provides for rules to be expressed at a global level. Locally, users are able to use xml:id (which is defined by XML) or id in HTML, or an attribute specific to the format in question (as in Example 75 68 ).

  • Applying the Id ID Value data category to xml:id (in XML) or id (in HTML) attributes using in global rules is not necessary, since xml:id is these attributes are the recommended way to specify an identifier in XML. identifier.

Go to the table of contents. 6.16.2 8.14.2 Implementation

The id ID Value data category can be expressed only with global rules. There is no inheritance. There is no default.

GLOBAL: The idValueRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required idValue attribute. It contains an any XPath expression; the context for the evaluation of the XPath expression is the same as for relative selectors . The evaluation of the XPath expression which constructs a string corresponding to the identifier of the node to which this rule applies. The identifier MUST be unique at least within the document. If the attribute xml:id is present or id in HTML for the selected node, the value of the xml:id attribute or id in HTML MUST take precedence over the idValue value.

Example 73: Pointing 66: Pointing to an ID value Value with the idValueRule element

The idValueRule element indicates that the unique identifier for each <text> element is the value of the attribute name of its parent element.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<resources>
  <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
    <its:translateRule translate="no" selector="/resources"/>
    <its:translateRule translate="yes" selector="//text"/>
    <its:idValueRule selector="//text" idValue="../@name"/>
  </its:rules>
  <entry name="btn.OK">
    <text>OK</text>
    <pos>1, 1</pos>
    <trig>sendOK</trig>
  </entry>
  <entry name="btn.CANCEL">
    <text>Cancel</text>
    <pos>2, 1</pos>
    <trig>cancelAll</trig>
  </entry>
</resources>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-idvalue-element-1.xml ]

Example 74: Constructing 67: Constructing ID values using the idValueRule element.

The idValue attribute allows to build composite values based on different attributes, element elements, or event even hard-coded text. Any of the String functions offered by XPath can be used. In the document below, the two elements <text> and <desc> are translatable, but they have only one corresponding identifier, the name attribute in their parent element.

To make sure the identifier is unique for both the content of <text> and the content of <desc> , the XPath expression concat(../@name, '_t') gives the identifier "settingsMissing_t" for the content of <text> and the expression concat(../@name, '_d') gives the identifier "settingsMissing_d" for the content of <desc> .

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<doc>
  <its:rules version="2.0" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
    <its:idValueRule selector="//text" idValue="concat(../@name, '_t')"/>
    <its:idValueRule selector="//desc" idValue="concat(../@name, '_d')"/>
  </its:rules>
  <msg name="settingsMissing">
    <text>Can't find settings file.</text>
    <desc>The module cannot find the default settings file. You need to
      re-initialize the system.</desc>
  </msg>
</doc>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-idvalue-element-2.xml ]

Example 75: Using 68: Using xml:id and idValueRule

When an xml:id attribute is present for a node selected by an idValueRule element, the value of xml:id takes precedence over the value defined by the idValueRule element. In the example below, the unique ID to use is “btnAgain” for the first <res> element, and “retryTip” for the second <res> element.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<file>
  <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
    <its:idValueRule selector="//res" idValue="@name"/>
  </its:rules>
  <res name="retryBtn" xml:id="btnAgain">Try Again</res>
  <res name="retryTip">click this to re-run the process with the current
    settings.</res>
</file>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-idvalue-attribute-1.xml ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.17 8.15 Preserve Space

Go to the table of contents. 6.17.1 8.15.1 Definition

The Preserve Space data category indicates how whitespace should is to be handled in content. The possible values for this data category are "default" and "preserve" and carry the same meaning as the corresponding values of the xml:space attribute. The default value is "default". The Preserve Space data category does not apply to HTML documents in HTML syntax.

Go to the table of contents. 6.17.2 8.15.2 Implementation

The Preserve Space data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally using the xml:space attribute. For elements, the data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements and attributes.

Note:

The Preserve Space data category is not applicable to HTML5 HTML documents in HTML syntax because xml:space (and by extension Preserve Space ) has no effect in documents parsed as text/html. However, the data category can be used in HTML in XHTML syntax .

GLOBAL: The preserveSpaceRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required space attribute with the value "default" or "preserve".

Example 76: The 69: The Preserve Space data category expressed globally

The preserveSpaceRule element specifies that whitespace in all verse elements must are to be treated literally.

<book>
        <strong class="hl-tag" style=

 <info>
                <strong class="hl-tag" style=

  <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" style="color: #F5844C">its:version=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style=

style="color: #F5844C">version="2.0"
"color: #000096">>
                        <strong class="hl-tag" style=

   <its:preserveSpaceRule selector="//verse" space="preserve"/>
                <strong class="hl-tag" style=

  </its:rules>
        <strong class="hl-tag" style=

 </info>
        <strong class="hl-tag" style=

 <verse>
’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
 Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
 And the mome raths outgrabe.
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=

 </verse>
</book>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-preservespace-global-1.xml ]

LOCAL: The xml:space attribute, as defined in section 2.10 of [XML 1.0] , maps exactly to the Preserve Space data category.

Example 77: The 70: The Preserve Space data category expressed locally

The standard xml:space attribute specifies that the whitespace in the verse element must are to be treated literally.

<book>
        <strong class="hl-tag" style=

 <verse xml:space="preserve">
'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
 Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
 And the mome raths outgrabe.
</verse>
</book>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-preservespace-local-1.xml ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.18 8.16 Localization Quality Issue

Go to the table of contents. 6.18.1 8.16.1 Definition

The Localization Quality Issue data category is used to express information related to localization quality assessment tasks. Such tasks can be conducted on the translation of some source content (such as a text or an image) into a target language or on the source text content itself where its quality may impact on the localization process.

Note:

Automated or manual quality assessment is one area of quality management for translation and localization. An example of existing quality assessment is in-country review (e.g., as part of a language acceptance test for software). An important part of quality assessment is the list of issue types that are being used. Very often, simple issue categories like "correct/incorrect" or "like/dislike" are inadequate; instead, more specific ones such as "terminology" or "grammar" are more helpful in identifying concrete reasons for quality problems and for obtaining a more objective picture of quality levels.

Non-normative terminology related to localization quality as used in this section is provided in Appendix H: Localization Quality Guidance .

This data category can be used in a number of ways, including the following example scenarios:

  • An A human reviewer working with a web-based tool adds quality markup manually in a text editor, including comments and suggestions, to localized content as part of the review process. A subsequent process examines this markup to ensure that changes were made.

  • A fully automatic quality checking tool flags a number of potential quality issues in an XML or HTML file and marks them up using ITS 2.0 markup. Other tools in the workflow A human reviewer then uses another tool to examine this markup and decide whether the file needs to be reviewed manually receive more extensive review or be passed on for further processing without a further manual review stage.

  • A quality assessment process identifies a number of issues and adds the ITS markup to a rendered HTML preview of an XML file along with CSS styling that highlights these issues. The resulting HTML file is then sent back to the translator to assist his or her revision efforts.

  • A human reviewer working with a web-based tool adds

Note:

What issues should be considered in quality markup, including comments and suggestions, to a localized text as part assessment tasks depends on the nature of the review process. A subsequent process examines project and tools used. Further guidance is beyond the scope of this markup specification, but implementers may wish to ensure that changes were made. consult the references cited in Appendix H: Localization Quality Guidance .

The data category defines four five pieces of information:

Information Description Value Notes
Type A set of broad types of classifier that groups similar issues into which tool-specific issues can be categorized. categories (for example to differentiate spelling errors from grammar errors). One of the values defined in list of type values . ITS 2.0-compliant tools that use these categories types MUST map their internal values to these types. If the type of the issue is set to uncategorized , a comment MUST be specified as well.
Comment A human-readable description of the a specific instance of a quality issue. Text Comments can be used to explain an issue or provide guidance in addressing an issue. For example, a note about a Terminology issue might specify what term should be used.
Severity A decimal value representing classifier for the severity seriousness of an issue. The seriousness depends on the issue, as defined by the model generating Quality Model that is being applied. The Quality Model should be made explicit via the metadata. Profile Reference. A decimal rational number in the interval 0 to 100 (inclusive). The value between 0.0 and 100.0 (inclusive), follows the XML Schema double data type with the constraining facets minInclusive set to 0 and maxInclusive set to 100. The higher values indicating represent greater severity. It is up to tools to map the values of this allowed by ITS 2.0 to their own system to this system’s scale. If needed, the original value can be passed along using a custom namespace for XML, or a data- attribute for HTML.
Profile Reference A reference to a document describing description of the quality assessment model (or a specific profile (customization/instantiation) of a model, where relevant) used for the issue. A URI An IRI pointing to the reference document. The use of resolvable URI IRIs is strongly recommended as it provides a way for human evaluators to learn more about the quality issues in use.
Enabled A flag indicating whether the issue is enabled or not. A value yes or no , with the default value being yes . This flag is used to activate or deactivate issues. There is no prescribed behavior associated with activated or deactivated issues. One example of usage is a tool that allows the user to deactivate false positives so they are not displayed again each time the document is re-checked.

Go to the table of contents. 6.18.2 8.16.2 Implementation

The Localization Quality Issue data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on individual elements. For elements, the data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements, but excluding attributes.

GLOBAL: The locQualityIssueRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • At least one of the following: Exactly one of the following: A locQualityIssuesRef attribute. Its value is a URI pointing to the locQualityIssues element containing the list of issues related Either (in parallel to this content. A locQualityIssuesRefPointer attribute that contains a relative selector local inline markup pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as locQualityIssuesRef . )

    • Exactly At least one of the following: following attributes:

      • A locQualityIssueType attribute that implements the type information .

      • A locQualityIssueTypePointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as locQualityIssueType . Exactly one of the following: A locQualityIssueComment attribute that implements the comment information .

    • A locQualityIssueCommentPointer An optional locQualityIssueSeverity attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with implements the exact same semantics as locQualityIssueComment . severity information .

    • None or exactly one of the following:
    • A locQualityIssueSeverity An optional locQualityIssueProfileRef attribute that implements the severity profile reference information .

    • A locQualityIssueSeverityPointer An optional locQualityIssueEnabled attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with implements the exact same semantics as locQualityIssueSeverity . enabled information .

  • None or Or (standoff markup) exactly one of the following:

    • A locQualityIssueProfileRef locQualityIssuesRef attribute that implements attribute. Its value is an IRI pointing to the profile reference information . locQualityIssues element containing the list of issues related to this content.

    • A locQualityIssueProfileRefPointer locQualityIssuesRefPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as locQualityIssueProfileRef locQualityIssuesRef .

[Ed. note: Why does below say "do not apply to HMTL as local markup"? There is local markup for direction annotation in XML too.]

Note:

The attributes attribute locQualityIssuesRefPointer , locQualityIssueTypePointer , locQualityIssueCommentPointer , locQualityIssueSeverityPointer and locQualityIssueProfileRefPointer do does not apply to HTML as local markup is provided for direct annotation in HTML.

Example 78: Annotating 71: Annotating an issue in XML with locQualityIssueRule element

The locQualityIssueRule element associates the issue information with a selected span the value of content. the text attribute.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<doc>
  <header>
    <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
      <its:locQualityIssueRule selector="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//span[@id='q1']"

"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//image[@id='i1']/@text"

        locQualityIssueType="typographical"
        "color: #F5844C">locQualitIssueyComment=<span class=

"color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueComment=
"hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"Sentence without capitalization"
        locQualityIssueSeverity="50"/>
    </its:rules>
  </header>
  "color: #000096"><para><strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><span <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">id=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"q1"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>this<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></span> is an example<strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></para>

"color: #000096"><para>Click the button <image id="i1" src="button.png"
                          
"color: #F5844C">text="start button"/>.</para>

</doc>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locQualityIssue-global-1.xml ]

Example 79: Using locQualityIssueRule to map equivalent 72: Annotating an issue in XML with local standoff markup and a global rule

The following example shows a document using local standoff markup to encode several issues. But because, in this case, the locQualityIssueRule mrk element defines what constructs are equivalent does not allow attributes from another namespace we cannot use locQualityIssuesRef directly. Instead, a global rule is used to map the native ITS markup for the different pieces of information function of locQualityIssuesRef to a non-ITS construct, here the data category. <span class="hl-directive" style= "color: maroon"><?xml version="1.0"?> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><header> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:locQualityIssueRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//issue" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueTypePointer=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"./@type" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueCommentPointer=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"./@note" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueSeverityPointer=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"./@value" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueProfileRefPointer=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"./@profile"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></header> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><para><strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><issue <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"typographical" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">note=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"Sentence without capitalization" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">value=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"50" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">profile=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://example.org/qaModel/v13"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">>this<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></issue> is an example<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></para> [Source file: examples/xml/EX-locQualityIssue-global-2.xml ] Example 80: Annotating an issue in HTML5 with locQualityIssueRule ref element The attribute of any locQualityIssueRule mrk element resides in a separate file ( Example 81 ) elements that associates the issue information with a selected span of content in the HTML document. have their attribute type set to "x-itslq".

"color: maroon"><?xml version="1.0"?>

"color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html>
<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><html <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">lang=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">en<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><head>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><meta <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">charset=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">utf-8<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><title>Example<strong class=
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></title>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><link <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">href=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">EX-locQualityIssueRule-html5-global.xml <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">rel=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">its-rules<strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"><doc xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0"
"color: #000096">>
  "color: #000096"></head>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><body>

"color: #000096"><file>

    "color: #000096"><p>
     <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><span <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">id=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">q1<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>this<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></span> is an example.<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"></p>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></body>
<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></html>
[Source
file:
examples/html5/EX-locQualityIssue-html5-global.html
]
Example
81: External
rule
document
associated
with
an
HTML5
document
This
document
is
used
in
Example
80
:
<span class="hl-directive" style=
"color: maroon"><?xml version="1.0"?>
<strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"><header>
      <its:rules style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value"
style=
"color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute"

style="color: #F5844C">version="2.0">
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=

        <its:locQualityIssueRule selector="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//span[@id='q1']"
    <span class="hl-attribute" style=

"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//mrk[@type='x-itslq']"
          
"color: #F5844C">locQualityIssuesRefPointer="@ref"/>
      
"color: #000096"></its:rules>
    
"color: #000096"></header>
    
"color: #000096"><unit id="1">
      
"color: #000096"><segment>
        
"color: #000096"><source>This is the content</source>
        
"color: #000096"><target><mrk type="x-itslq" ref="#lq1">c'es</mrk> le contenu</target>
      
"color: #000096"></segment>
      
"color: #000096"><its:locQualityIssues xml:id="lq1">
        
"color: #000096"><its:locQualityIssue locQualityIssueType="misspelling"
          
"color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueComment="'c'es' is unknown. Could be 'c'est'"
          
"color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueSeverity="50"/>
        
"color: #000096"><its:locQualityIssue 
"color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueType="typographical"
    <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueComent=<span class=

          "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueComment=
"hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"Sentence without capitalization"
    <span class="hl-attribute" style=

          locQualityIssueSeverity="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"50"<strong class="hl-tag"

"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"30"
style="color: #000096">/>
<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></its:rules>

      "color: #000096"></its:locQualityIssues>
    
"color: #000096"></unit>
  
"color: #000096"></file>
</doc>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-locQualityIssueRule-html5-global.xml examples/xml/EX-locQualityIssue-global-2.xml ]

LOCAL: Using the inline markup to represent the data category locally is limited to a single occurrence for a given content (e.g. one cannot have different locQualityIssueType attributes applied to the same span of text because the inner-most one would override the others). A local standoff markup is provided to allow such cases.

The following local markup is available for the Localization Quality Issue data category:

  • Either (inline markup):

  • Or (standoff markup):

    • A locQualityIssuesRef attribute. Its value is a URI an IRI pointing to the locQualityIssues element containing the list of issues related to this content.

    • An element locQualityIssues (or with a <span loc-quality-issues> xml:id attribute set to the identifier specified in HTML) which the locQualityIssuesRef attribute. The locQualityIssues element contains:

      [Ed. note: Should locQualityIssues also be defined for global rules? It seems not to be specific to local.]
      • One or more elements locQualityIssue (or <span its-loc-quality-issue> in HTML), , each of which contains:

    Note:

    Ideally the order of locQualityIssue elements within a locQualityIssues element reflects the order with which they were added to the document, with the most recently added one listed first.

    Important: When the attributes locQualityIssueType , locQualityIssueComment , locQualityIssueSeverity , locQualityIssueProfileRef and locQualityIssueProfileRef locQualityIssueEnabled (or their equivalent representations) are used in in a standoff manner, the information they carry pertains to the content of the element that refers to the standoff annotation, not to the content of the element locQualityIssue (or <span loc-quality-issue> in HTML) where they are declared.

    In HTML the standoff markup MUST either be stored inside a script element in the same HTML document, or can be linked from any locQualityIssuesRef to an external XML or HTML file with the standoff inside. If standoff is inside a script element, that element MUST have a type attribute with the value application/its+xml . Its id attribute MUST be set to the same value as the xml:id attribute of the locQualityIssues element it contains.

Example 82: Annotating 73: Annotating an issue in XML with local inline markup

The attributes locQualityIssueType , locQualityIssueComment and locQualityIssueSeverity are used to associate the issue information directly with a selected span of content.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<doc xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0">
  <para><span its:locQualityIssueType="typographical"
      its:locQualityIssueComment="Sentence without capitalization"
      its:locQualityIssueSeverity="50">this</span> is an example</para>
</doc>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locQualityIssue-local-1.xml ]

Example 83: Annotating 74: Annotating an issue in HTML with local inline markup

In this example several spans of content are associated with a quality issue.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=en>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <title>Telharmonium 1897</title>
    <style type="color: #993300">text<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">/css>

"color: #993300">text/css>

         [its-loc-quality-issue-type]{
           background-color:yellow;
           margin:2px;
         }
         [its-loc-quality-issue-severity = "100"]{
           border: 2px solid red;
         }
        </style>
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>Telharmonium (1897)</h1>
    <p>
      <span
        data-mytool-qacode=named_entity_not_found
        its-loc-quality-issue-comment="Should be Thomas Cahill."
        its-loc-quality-issue-profile-ref=style="color: #993300">http:<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">//example.org/qaMovel/v1
        its-loc-quality-issue-severity=100
        its-loc-quality-issue-type=inconsistent-entities>Christian Bale<strong class="hl-tag"
style=
"color: #000096"></span>(1867–1934) conceived of an instrument that could transmit its sound
      from a power plant for hundreds of miles to listeners over telegraph wiring. Beginning in
      1889 the sound quality of regular telephone concerts was very poor on account of the buzzing
      generated by carbon-granule microphones. As a result Cahill decided to set a new standard in
      perfection of sound <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><span

style="color: #993300">http://example.org/qaMovel/v1
        
"color: #F5844C">its-loc-quality-issue-severity=100
        
"color: #F5844C">its-loc-quality-issue-type=inconsistent-entities>Christian Bale</span>
      (1867–1934) conceived of an instrument that could transmit its sound
      from a power plant for hundreds of miles to listeners over telegraph wiring.
      Beginning in 1889 the sound quality of regular telephone concerts was very poor
      on account of the buzzing generated by carbon-granule microphones. As a result
      Cahill decided to set a new standard in perfection of sound <span

        its-loc-quality-issue-comment="should be 'quality'"
        its-loc-quality-issue-profile-ref=grammar
        its-loc-quality-issue-severity=50
        its-loc-quality-issue-type="hl-value" style="color: #993300">spelling<strong class=

"hl-value" style="color: #993300">misspelling
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096">>qulaity"color: #000096"></span> with his instrument, a standard that would not only satisfy listeners but that

"color: #000096"></span> with his instrument,
      a standard that would not only satisfy listeners but that

      would overcome all the flaws of traditional instruments.</p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-locQualityIssue-html5-local-1.html ]

Example 84: Annotating 75: Annotating an issue in XML with local standoff markup

The following example shows a document using local standoff markup to encode several issues. The mrk element delimits the content to markup and holds a locQualityIssuesRef attribute that points to the locQualityIssues element where the issues are listed.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<xliff version="1.2" xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:xliff:document:1.2"
  xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0">
  <file original="example.doc" source-language="en" datatype="plaintext">
    <body>
      <trans-unit id="1">
        <source xml:lang="en">This is the content</source>
        <target xml:lang="fr"><mrk mtype="x-itslq"
            its:locQualityIssuesRef="#lq1">c'es</mrk> le contenu</target>
        <its:locQualityIssues xml:id="lq1">
          <its:locQualityIssue locQualityIssueType="misspelling"
            locQualityIssueComment="'c'es' is unknown. Could be 'c'est'"
            locQualityIssueSeverity="50"/>
          <its:locQualityIssue locQualityIssueType="typographical"
            locQualityIssueComment="Sentence without capitalization"
            locQualityIssueSeverity="30"/>
        </its:locQualityIssues>
      </trans-unit>
    </body>
  </file>
</xliff>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locQualityIssue-local-2.xml ]

Example 85: Annotating an issue in XML with local standoff markup and a global rule The following example shows a document using local standoff markup to encode several issues. But because, in this case, the mrk element does not allow attributes from another namespace we cannot use locQualityIssuesRef directly. Instead, a global rule is used to map the function of locQualityIssuesRef to a non-ITS construct, here the ref attribute of any mrk elements that has its attribute type set to "x-itslq". <span class="hl-directive" style= "color: maroon"><?xml version="1.0"?> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><doc <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:version=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><file> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><header> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:locQualityIssueRule <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//mrk[@type='x-itslq']" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssuesRefPointer=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"@ref"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:rules> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></header> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><unit <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">id=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"1"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><segment> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><source>This is the content<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></source> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><target><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096"><mrk <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"x-itslq" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">ref=<span class="hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"#lq1"<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096">>c'es<strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></mrk> le contenu<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></target> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></segment> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:locQualityIssues <span class= "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xml:id=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"lq1"<strong class= "hl-tag" style="color: #000096">> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:locQualityIssue <span class= "hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueType=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"misspelling" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueComment=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"'c'es' is unknown. Could be 'c'est'" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueSeverity=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"50"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"><its:locQualityIssue <span class= "hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueType=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"typographical" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueComment=<span class= "hl-value" style= "color: #993300">"Sentence without capitalization" <span class="hl-attribute" style= "color: #F5844C">locQualityIssueSeverity=<span class= "hl-value" style="color: #993300">"30"<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></its:locQualityIssues> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></unit> <strong class="hl-tag" style= "color: #000096"></file> [Source file: examples/xml/EX-locQualityIssue-local-3.xml ] Example 86: Annotating 76: Annotating an issue in HTML with local standoff markup

The following example shows a document using local standoff markup to encode several issues. The span element delimits the content to markup and holds a loc-quality-issues-ref attribute that points to a special span element where the issues are listed within a set of other special span elements.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <title>Test</title>
    <script src=qaissues.js type="color: #993300">text<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">/javascript><strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"></script>

"color: #993300">text/javascript></script>

    <script type="color: #993300">application<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">/xml id=its-standoff-1>

"color: #993300">application/its+xml id=lq1>

      <its:locQualityIssues xml:id="lq1" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
        <its:locQualityIssue
          locQualityIssueType="misspelling"
          locQualityIssueComment="'c'es' is unknown. Could be 'c'est'"
          locQualityIssueSeverity="50"/>
        <its:locQualityIssue
          locQualityIssueType="typographical"
          locQualityIssueComment="Sentence without capitalization"
          locQualityIssueSeverity="30"/>
      </its:locQualityIssues>
    </script>
    <style type="color: #993300">text<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">/css>.qaissue { background-color: yellow; } <strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #993300">text/css>.qaissue { background-color: yellow; } 
style="color: #000096"></style>
  </head>
  <body onload=addqaissueattrs()>
    <p>
      <span its-loc-quality-issues-ref=#lq1>c'es</span> le contenu</p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-locQualityIssue-html5-local-2.html ]

[Ed. note: TODO for above: Finalize how HTML should work: use its-* attributes for standoff markup or markup inside the script element.]

Go to the table of contents. 6.19 8.17 Localization Quality Précis Rating

Go to the table of contents. 6.19.1 8.17.1 Definition

The Localization Quality Précis Rating data category is used to express an overall measurement of the localization quality of a document or an item in a document.

This data category allows to specify a quality score or a voting result for a given item or document, as well as to indicate what constitutes a passing score or vote. It also allows to point pointing to a profile describing the quality assessment model used for the scoring or the voting.

Go to the table of contents. 6.19.2 8.17.2 Implementation

The Localization Quality Précis Rating data category can be is only expressed with global rules, or locally on individual elements. For elements, the The data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements, but excluding attributes.

GLOBAL:

LOCAL: The locQualityPrecisRule element contains following local markup is available for the following: A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector Localization Quality Rating which selects the nodes to which this rule applies. Exactly one of the following: data category:

Example 91: The 77: The Localization Quality Précis Rating data category expressed locally in XML

The locQualityPrecisScore locQualityRatingScore , locQualityPrecisThreshold locQualityRatingThreshold and locQualityPrecisProfileRef locQualityRatingProfileRef are used to score the quality of the document.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<doc "color: #F5844C">xml:lang='nl'
  xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0"
  "color: #F5844C">its:locQualityPrecisScore=<span class=

"color: #F5844C">its:locQualityRatingScore=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"100"
  "color: #F5844C">its:locQualityPrecisThreshold=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"95"

"color: #F5844C">its:locQualityRatingScoreThreshold="95"

  "color: #F5844C">its:locQualityPrecisProfileRef=<span class=

"color: #F5844C">its:locQualityRatingProfileRef=
"hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"http://example.org/qaModel/v13">
  "color: #000096"><title>The Adventures of Tom Sawyer<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #000096"><title>De lotgevallen van Tom Sawyer
style="color: #000096"></title>
  "color: #000096"><para>He got home pretty late that night, and when he climbed cautiously in at
    the window, he uncovered an ambuscade, in the person of his aunt; and when
    she saw the state his clothes were in her resolution to turn his Saturday
    holiday into captivity at hard labor became adamantine in its
    firmness.<strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"><para>Hij kwam vrij laat te huis, en toen hij voorzichtig het raam insprong,
   viel hij in eene hinderlaag, in de persoon van zijne tante, bij wie, toen zij
   den staat zag, waarin zijne kleederen verkeerden, het besluit om zijn vrijen
   Zaterdag in een gevangenschap met dwangarbeid te veranderen, onherroepelijk
   vaststond.
"color: #000096"></para>
</doc>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-locQualityPrecis-local-1.xml examples/xml/EX-locQualityRating-local-1.xml ]

Example 92: The 78: The Localization Quality Précis Rating data category expressed locally in HTML

The its-loc-quality-precis-score its-loc-quality-rating-score , its-loc-quality-precis-threshold its-loc-quality-rating-score-threshold and its-loc-quality-precis-profile-ref its-loc-quality-rating-profile-ref are used to score the quality of the document.

<!DOCTYPE html>
"color: #000096"><html lang=fr

  "color: #F5844C">its-loc-quality-precis-profile-ref=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">http:<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">//example.org/qaModel/v13
  its-loc-quality-precis-score=100
  its-loc-quality-precis-threshold=95
  lang=en>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #F5844C">its-loc-quality-rating-profile-ref=http://example.org/qaModel/v13
  
"color: #F5844C">its-loc-quality-rating-score=90
  
"color: #F5844C">its-loc-quality-rating-score-threshold=80
  >
 <head>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=

  "color: #000096"><meta charset=utf-8>
  <title>Rikki-tikki-tavi</title>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=

 </head>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=

 <body>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><p>This is the story of the great war that Rikki-tikki-tavi fought single-handed,
      through the bath-rooms of the big bungalow in Segowlee cantonment. Darzee, the
      Tailorbird, helped him, and Chuchundra, the musk-rat, who never comes out into 
      the middle of the floor, but always creeps round by the wall, gave him advice, 
      but Rikki-tikki did the real fighting.<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"></p>

  "color: #000096"><p>C'est l'histoire de la grande guerre que Rikki-Tikki-Tavi a combattu tout seul, 
   à travers les salles de bain du grand bungalow au cantonnement Segowlee. Darzee,
   le tailbird, l'a aidé, et Chuchundra, le rat musqué, qui ne sort jamais jusqu'au
   milieu du plancher, mais se glisse toujours contre la paroi, lui donnait des
   conseils, mais Rikki-Tikki-Tavi fait le véritable combat.</p>
 </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-locQualityPrecis-html5-local.html examples/html5/EX-locQualityRating-html5-local.html ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.20 8.18 MT Confidence

Go to the table of contents. 6.20.1 8.18.1 Definition

The MT Confidence data category is used to communicate the self-reported confidence of score from a specific machine translation engine. engine for the accuracy of a translation it has provided. It is not intended as to provide a score that is comparable between machine translation engines and platforms. It is solely for providing self-reported confidence by the specific system that produced the actually used raw machine translation. This data category does NOT aim to establish any sort of correlation between the self-reported confidence score and either human evaluation of MT usefulness, or post-editing cognitive effort. For harmonization’s sake, MT Confidence is provided as a (rational) rational number from in the interval <0;1>. 0 to 1 (inclusive).

Note:

Implementers are expected to interpret the floating point floating-point number and present it to human and other consumers in other a convenient forms, form, such as percentage (0-100%) with up to 2 decimal digits, font or background color coding coding, etc.

Note:

The value provided by the MT Confidence data category can be 1) the quality score of the translation as produced by an MT engine, or 2) a quality estimation score that uses both MT-system-internal features and additional external features. For this reason it is important that MT Confidence provides additional information about the MT engine (via the annotatorsRef attribute, or in HTML the its-annotators-ref attribute). Otherwise the score on its own is hard to interpret and to reuse. In the case of 2), MT Confidence potentially conveys information about any additional tools that were used in deriving the score.

This data category can be used for several purposes, including, but not limited to:

  • Automated sorting prioritising of raw machine translated text for further processing based on empirically set thresholds.

  • Provide readers Providing readers, translators, post-editors, reviewers, and proof-readers of machine translated text with self-reported relative accuracy prediction.

  • Provide translators, post-editors, reviewers and proofreaders with self-reported relative accuracy prediction. Human consumers using often machine translation for the same source should be able to predict usefulness of a machine translated segments at a glance.

MT confidence scores can be displayed e.g.: e.g., on websites machine translated on the fly, by simple web-based translation editors, and editors or by Computer Aided Translation (CAT) tools.

Go to the table of contents. 6.20.2 8.18.2 Implementation

The MT Confidence data category can be expressed with global rules, rules or locally on individual elements. For elements, the data category information inherits is inherited to by the textual content of the element, including child elements, but excluding attributes.

Any node selected by the MT Confidence data category MUST be contained in an element with the annotatorsRef (or in HTML, its-annotators-ref ) attribute specified for the MT Confidence data category. For more information, see Section 5.7: ITS Tools Annotation .

GLOBAL: The mtConfidenceRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • A required mtProducer mtConfidence attribute that contains with a human readable string identifying the Machine Translation Platform, e.g. "Bing Translator" , "Google Translate" , "DCU Matrex" , "vanilla Moses" etc. An optional mtEngine attribute value that contains a string uniquely identifying a specific MT engine on represents the translation confidence score as a platform given rational number in mtProducer. Some examples of values are: A BCP 47 language tag with t-extension, e.g. ja-t-it for an Italian the interval 0 to Japanese MT engine A Domain as per 1 (inclusive). The value follows the Section 6.9: Domain XML Schema double data type A privately structured string, eg. Domain:IT-Pair:IT-JA , IT-JA:Medical , etc. with the constraining facets minInclusive set to 0 and maxInclusive set to 1.

Example 93: Global 79: Global usage of mtConfidenceRule , mtProducer , and in a HTML document to specify the confidence scores for the translation into English of the mtEngine title (specified by BCP 47 t-extension) along with local usage attributes of two mtConfidenceScore img elements.
"color: #000096"><text <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its=<span class="hl-value"
style=
"color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">>

"color: blue"><!DOCTYPE html>

"color: #000096"><html lang=en>
 
"color: #000096"><head>

  "color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">version=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"><meta charset=utf-8
"color: #000096">>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><its:mtConfidenceRule <span class=
"hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"/text/body/p/"
      <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">mtProducer=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"Bing Translator"
      <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">mtEngine=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"en-t-cs"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">/>

  "color: #000096"></its:rules>

"color: #000096"><link href=EX-mtconfidence-global-html5-1-external-rules.xml rel=its-rules>
   
"color: #000096"><title>Machine translated title attributes of img elements give MT 
           confidence scores using global rules</title>

  "color: #000096"><body>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><p>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><span <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">its:mtConfidenceScore=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"0.8982"<strong class=
"hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>Dublin is the capital city of
        Ireland.<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></span>

"color: #000096"></head>
  
"color: #000096"><body its-annotators-ref="mt-confidence|file:///tools.xml#T1">
   
"color: #000096"><p>     

    "color: #000096"></p>

"color: #000096"><img src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Trinity_College.jpg" 
         
"color: #F5844C">title="Front gate of Trinity College Dublin"
         
"color: #F5844C">alt="alternative description"/>
   
"color: #000096"><img src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Molly_alone.jpg" 
        
"color: #F5844C">title="A tart with a cart"
        
"color: #F5844C">alt="alternative description"/>

  "color: #000096"></p>  
 </body>
"color: #000096"></text>

"color: #000096"></html>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-mtConfidence-global-1.xml examples/html5/EX-mtConfidence-global-html5-1.html ]

Where the external ITS rules file is as shown:

Example 94: Global usage of mtConfidenceRule , mtProducer , and mtEngine (specified with a sample privately structured string) along 80: XML file with local usage of mtConfidenceScore external rules references from an HTML file.
"color: maroon"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

"color: #000096"><text <span class="hl-attribute"

"color: #000096"><its:rules 
style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><its:rules <span class="hl-attribute"

"color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" 
style="color: #F5844C">version="color: #993300">"2.0"<strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">>

"color: #993300">"2.0"
    
"color: #F5844C">xmlns:h="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">

    <its:mtConfidenceRule "hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"/text/body/p/"
      <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">mtProducer=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"vanilla Moses"

"hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">mtConfidence="0.785" 

      "color: #F5844C">mtEngine=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"medical:EN-ES_LA"<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096">/>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></its:rules>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><body>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><p>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><span <span class="hl-attribute"
style="color: #F5844C">its:mtConfidenceScore=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"0.9876543"<strong class=
"hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">> Lavar y secar bien las manos es
        fundamental para prevenir la propagación de gérmenes.<strong class="hl-tag"
style="color: #000096"></span>

"color: #F5844C">selector="//h:img[@title='Front gate of Trinity College Dublin']/@title"/>        

    "color: #000096"></p>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></body>

"color: #000096"><its:mtConfidenceRule mtConfidence="0.805" 
      
"color: #F5844C">selector="//h:img[@title='A tart with a cart']/@title"/>        

"color: #000096"></text>

"color: #000096"></its:rules>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-mtConfidence-global-2.xml examples/html5/EX-mtconfidence-global-html5-1-external-rules.xml ]

LOCAL: the following local markup is available for the MT Confidence data category:

  • An mtProducer A mtConfidence attribute that contains with a string identifying the Machine Translation Platform, e.g. “Bing Translator”, “Google Translate”, “DCU Matrex”, “vanilla Moses” etc. An mtEngine attribute value that contains a string uniquely identifying a specific MT engine on represents the translation confidence score as a platform given rational number in mtProducer. Some examples of values are given for the global definition of MT Confidence . interval 0 to 1 (inclusive). The value follows the XML Schema double data type with the constraining facets minInclusive set to 0 and maxInclusive set to 1.

Example 95: The 81: The MT Confidence data category expressed locally for the content of a span in an XML document.
<text xmlns:its="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0"
  
"color: #F5844C">its:annotatorsRef="mt-confidence|file:///tools.xml#T1"
style="color: #000096">>
  <body>
    <p>
      <span style="color: #F5844C">its:mtProducer=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"Bing Translator" <span class=
"hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its:mtEngine=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">"en-t-cs"
        <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its:mtConfidenceScore=<span class=

style="color: #F5844C">its:mtConfidence=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">"0.8982">Dublin is the capital city of
        Ireland.</span>
    </p>
  </body>
</text>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-mtConfidence-local-1.xml ]

Example 96: The 82: The MT Confidence data category expressed locally for the content of two separate spans in HTML5 a HTML document.
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=en"color: #000096">>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"> >
   <head>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=

      <meta charset=utf-8>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><title>Sentences about Dublin and Prague MTed from Czech with mtConfidence locally.<strong class="hl-tag"

      "color: #000096"><title>Sentences about Dublin and Prague 
         machine translated from Czech with mtConfidence locally.
style="color: #000096"></title>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=

   </head>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"><body>

    "color: #000096"><p>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style=

"color: #000096"><body its-annotators-ref="mt-confidence|file:///tools.xml#T1">
       
"color: #000096"><p>     
         <span style="color: #F5844C">its-mt-confidence-score=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">0.8982 <span class=
"hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its-mt-engine=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">en-t-cs <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its-mt-producer=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"Bing Translator"<strong class=

style="color: #F5844C">its-mt-confidence=0.8982
"hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">> Dublin is the capital of Ireland.<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #000096">>Dublin is the capital of Ireland.
style="color: #000096"></span>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style=

         <span style="color: #F5844C">its-mt-confidence-score=<span class=
"hl-value" style="color: #993300">0.8536 <span class=
"hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its-mt-engine=<span class="hl-value" style=
"color: #993300">en-t-cs <span class="hl-attribute" style=
"color: #F5844C">its-mt-producer=<span class="hl-value"
style="color: #993300">"Bing Translator"<strong class=

style="color: #F5844C">its-mt-confidence=0.8536
"hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096">> The capital of the Czech Republic is Prague.<strong class="hl-tag"

"color: #000096"> >The capital of the Czech Republic is Prague.
style="color: #000096"></span>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=
"color: #000096"></p>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style=

      "color: #000096"></p>  
   </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-mtConfidence-html5-local-1.html ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.21 8.19 Allowed Characters

Go to the table of contents. 6.21.1 8.19.1 Definition

The Allowed Characters data category is used to specify what the characters that are allowed permitted in a given piece of content.

This data category can be used for various purposes, including the following examples:

  • Limit Limiting the characters which that may be used in the UI of a game because of some special due to font restrictions.

  • Prevent Preventing illegal characters to be from being entered for as text content that are represents file or directory names.

  • Control Controlling what characters can be used when translating examples of a login name in a content.

Note:

The Allowed Characters data category is not intended to disallow HTML markup. The purpose is to restrict the content to various characters only, e.g., when the content is to be used for URL or filename generation. In most Content Management Systems, content is divided into several fields, some of which may be restricted to plain text, while in other fields HTML fragments may be allowed. Enforcing such restrictions is outside the scope of this data category.

The set of characters that are allowed is specified using a regular expression. That is, each character in the selected content MUST be included in the set specified by the regular expression.

The regular expression is a the character class construct as charClass defined in the section Character Classes of XML Schema [XML Schema Part 2] , with the assumption that the as follows:

  • [1] charClass ::= singleCharEsc | charClassExpr | wildcardEsc

  • [2] singleCharEsc ::= '\' [nrt\|.?*+(){}#x2D#x5B#x5D#x5E]

  • [3] charClassExpr ::= '[' charGroup ']'

  • [4] charGroup ::= posCharGroup | negCharGroup

  • [5] posCharGroup ::= ( charRange | singleCharEsc )+

  • [6] charRange ::= seRange | xmlCharIncDash

  • [7] seRange ::= charOrEsc '-' charOrEsc

  • [8] charOrEsc ::= xmlChar | singleCharEsc

  • [9] xmlChar ::= [^\#x2D#x5B#x5D]

  • [10] xmlCharIncDash ::= [^\#x5B#x5D]

  • [11] negCharGroup ::= '^' posCharGroup

  • [12] wildcardEsc ::= '.'

The . metacharacter matches also matches CARRIAGE RETURN (U+000D) and LINE FEED (U+000F). That is with the dot-all option is set.

This construct is a sub-set of the Character Classes construct of XML Schema [XML Schema Part 2] and is compatible with most other regular expression engines.

Note:

Users may want to use a regular expression to make sure that they follow the definition given above. Sample regular expressions to verify the regular expression in allowed characters are provided: for XML and for Java .

Example of expressions (shown as XML source):

  • "[abc]" : : allows the characters 'a', 'b' and 'c'.

  • "[a-c]" : : allows the characters 'a', 'b' and 'c'.

  • "[a-zA-Z]" : : allows the characters from 'a' to 'z' and from 'A' to 'Z'.

  • "[^abc]" : : allows any characters except 'a', 'b', and 'c'.

  • "[^&#x0061;-c]" : : allows any characters except 'a', 'b', and 'c'.

  • "\w" : allows any character except the set of "punctuation", "separator" and "other" characters. "[&#x20;-&#x1ffff;-[&lt;>:&quot;\\/|\?*]]" : "[^&lt;>:&quot;\\/|\?*]" : allows only the characters valid for Windows file names.

  • "." : : allows any character.

  • "" : : allows no character.

  • "[a-&#x00ff;-[\s]]" : allows all characters between U+0061 and U+00FF except the characters SPACE (U+0020), TABULATION (U+0009), CARRIAGE RETURN (U+000D) and LINE FEED (U+000F).

Go to the table of contents. 6.21.2 8.19.2 Implementation

The Allowed Characters data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on individual elements. For elements, the data category information inherits to the textual content of the element, including child elements, but excluding attributes.

GLOBAL: The allowedCharactersRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • Exactly one of the following:

    • A An allowedCharacters attribute that contains the regular expression indicating the allowed characters.

    • A An allowedCharactersPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as allowedCharacters .

Example 97: The 83: The Allowed Characters data category expressed globally in XML

The allowedCharactersRule element states that the translated content of elements content must not cannot contain the characters * and + .

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<myRes xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  <head>
    <its:rules version="2.0">
      <its:allowedCharactersRule allowedCharacters="[^*+]" selector="//content"/>
    </its:rules>
  </head>
  <body>
    <content>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam
      nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed
      diam voluptua.</content>
  </body>
</myRes>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-allowedCharacters-global-1.xml ]

Example 98: Mapping 84: Mapping the Allowed Characters data category in XML

The attribute allowedCharactersPointer is used to map the data category to the non-ITS attribute set in this document. The attribute has the same semantics as allowedCharacters .

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<res xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
  <head>
    <its:rules version="2.0">
      <its:allowedCharactersRule selector="//record" allowedCharactersPointer="@set"/>
    </its:rules>
  </head>
  <record id="a1" set="[ &#xFF01;–&#xFF5E;]">FULL WIDTH ONLY</record>
</res>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-allowedCharacters-global-2.xml ]

LOCAL: the following local markup is available for the Allowed Characters data category:

  • A allowedCharacters attribute that contains the regular expression indicating the allowed characters.

Example 99: The 85: The Allowed Characters data category expressed locally in XML

The local allowedCharacters attribute specifies that the translated content of element panelmsg must contain is only allowed to contain Unicode characters between U+0020 and U+00FE.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<messages xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0">
  <msg num="123">Click the <panelmsg its:allowedCharacters="[&#x0020;-&#x00FE;]"
      >CONTINUE</panelmsg> Button on the printer panel</msg>
</messages>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-allowedCharacters-local-1.xml ]

Example 100: The 86: The Allowed Characters data category expressed locally in HTML

The local its-allowed-characters attribute specifies that the translated content of element code must not cannot contain the characters other than 'a' to 'z' in any case and the characters underscore and minus.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=en>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <title>Example</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>Login names can only use letters from A to Z (upper or lowercase)
    and the character underscore (_) and minus (-).
    For example: <code its-allowed-characters=[a-zA-Z_\-]>Huck_Finn</code>.</p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-allowedCharacters-html5-local-1.html ]

Go to the table of contents. 6.22 8.20 Storage Size

Go to the table of contents. 6.22.1 8.20.1 Definition

The Storage Size data category is used to specify the maximum storage size of a given content.

This data category can be used for various purposes, including the following examples:

  • Verify during translation if a string fits into a fixed-size database field.

  • Control the size of a string that is stored in a fixed-size memory buffer at run-time.

The storage size is always expressed in bytes and excludes any leading Byte-Order-Markers. It is provided along with the character set encoding and the line break type that will be used when the content is stored. If the encoding form does not use the byte as its unit (e.g. UTF-16 uses 16-bit code units) the storage size MUST still be given in byte (e.g., for UTF-16: 2 bytes per 16-bit code unit).

An application verifying the storage size for a given content is expected to store perform the content. following steps:

  • All the LINE FEED (U+000A) characters of the content to verify are replaced by the character or characters specified by the line break type.

  • The resulting string is converted to an array of bytes using a character encoder for the specified encoding. If a character cannot be represented with the specified encoding, an error is generated.

  • If the leading bytes represent a Byte-Order-Mark, they are stripped from that array.

  • The length of the resulting array is compared to the storage size provided. The content is too long if the length is greater than the storage size.

Note:

Storage size is not directly related to the display length of a text, and therefore is not intended as a display length constraint mechanism.

Go to the table of contents. 6.22.2 8.20.2 Implementation

The Storage Size data category can be expressed with global rules, or locally on individual elements. There is no inheritance. The default value of the character set encoding is UTF-8. "UTF-8", and the default value for the line break is "lf" (LINE FEED (U+000A)).

GLOBAL: The storageSizeRule element contains the following:

  • A required selector attribute. It contains an absolute selector which that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

  • Exactly one of the following:

    • A storageSize attribute. It contains the maximum number of bytes the text of the selected node is allowed in storage.

    • A storageSizePointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as storageSize .

  • None or exactly one of the following:

    • A storageEncoding attribute. It contains the name of the character set encoding used to calculate the number of bytes of the selected text. The name MUST be one of the names or aliases listed in the IANA Character Sets registry [IANA Character Sets] . The default value is the string "UTF-8".

    • A storageEncodingPointer attribute that contains a relative selector pointing to a node with the exact same semantics as storageEncoding .

  • An optional lineBreakType attribute. It indicates what type of line breaks the storage uses. The possible values are: cr "cr" for CARRIAGE RETURN (U+000D), lf "lf" for LINE FEED (U+000A), crlf or "crlf" for CARRIAGE RETURN (U+000D) followed by LINE FEED (U+000A), or nel for NEXT LINE (U+0085). (U+000A). The default value is lf . "lf".

Example 101: The 87: The Storage Size data category expressed globally in XML

The storageSizeRule element is used to specify that, when encoded in ISO-8859-1, the content of the country element must not cannot be more than 25 bytes. The name "Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée" is 25 character long and fits because all characters in ISO-8859-1 are encoded as a single byte.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<db>
  <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
    <its:storageSizeRule selector="//country" storageSize="25"
      storageEncoding="ISO-8859-1"/>
  </its:rules>
  <data>
    <country id="123">Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée</country>
    <country id="139">République Dominicaine</country>
  </data>
</db>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-storageSize-global-1.xml ]

Example 102: Mapping 88: Mapping the Storage Size data category in XML

The storageSizePointer attribute is used to map the non-ITS attribute max to the same functionality as storageSize . There is no character set encoding specified, so the default UTF-8 is assumed. Note that, while the name "Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée" is 25 character characters long, the character 'é' is encoded into two bytes in UTF-8. Therefore this name is one byte too long to fit in its storage destination.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<fields>
  <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="2.0">
    <its:storageSizeRule selector="//field" storageSizePointer="@max"/>
  </its:rules>
  <field type="country" id="123" max="25">Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée</field>
  <field type="country" id="139" max="25">République Dominicaine</field>
</fields>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-storageSize-global-2.xml ]

LOCAL: the following local markup is available for the Storage Size data category:

  • A storageSize attribute. It contains the maximum number of bytes the text of the selected node is allowed in storage.

  • An optional storageEncoding attribute. It contains the name of the character set encoding used to calculate the number of bytes of the selected text. The name MUST be one of the names or aliases listed in the IANA Character Sets registry [IANA Character Sets] . The default value is the string "UTF-8".

  • An optional lineBreakType attribute. It indicates what type of line breaks the storage uses. The possible values are: cr "cr" for CARRIAGE RETURN (U+000D), lf "lf" for LINE FEED (U+000A), crlf or "crlf" for CARRIAGE RETURN (U+000D) followed by LINE FEED (U+000A), or nel for NEXT LINE (U+0085). (U+000A). The default value is lf . "lf".

Example 103: The 89: The Storage Size data category expressed locally in XML

The storageSize attribute allows to specify specification of different the maximum storage sizes throughout the document. Note that the string CONTINUE does not fit the specified restriction of 8 bytes. The minimal number of bytes to store such a string in UTF-16 is 16.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<messages xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" its:version="2.0">
  <var num="panelA1_Continue" its:storageSize="8" its:storageEncoding="UTF-16">CONTINUE</var>
  <var num="panelA1_Stop" its:storageSize="8" its:storageEncoding="UTF-16">STOP</var>
  <var num="panelB5_Cancel" its:storageSize="12" its:storageEncoding="UTF-16">CANCEL</var>
</messages>

[Source file: examples/xml/EX-storageSize-local-1.xml ]

Example 104: The 90: The Storage Size data category expressed locally in HTML

The its-storage-size is used here to specify the maximum number of bytes the two editable strings can have in UTF-8.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=en>
  <head>
    <meta charset=utf-8>
    <title>Example</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>String to translate:</p>
    <p contenteditable=true id=123 its-storage-size=25>Papua New-Guinea</p>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style=

      <p contenteditable=true id=139 its-storage-size=25"color: #000096">>Dominican Replubic<strong class=

"color: #000096">>Dominican Republic
"hl-tag" style="color: #000096"></p>
  </body>
</html>

[Source file: examples/html5/EX-storageSize-html5-local-1.html ]

7 Using ITS Markup in HTML5 7.1 Mapping of Local Data Categories to HTML5 All data categories defined in Section 6: Description of Data Categories and having local implementation might be used in HTML with the exception of Translate , Directionality , Ruby , and Language Information data categories. Note: Above mentioned data categories are excluded because HTML have native markup for them. In HTML data categories are implemented as attributes. Name of HTML attribute is derived from the name of attribute defined in the local implementation by using the following rules: Attribute name is prefixed with its- Each uppercase letter in the attribute name is replaced by - (U+002D) followed by a lowercase variant of the letter. Values of attributes which corresponds to data categories with a predefined set of values MUST be matched case-insensitively. Note: Case of attribute names is also irrelevant given the nature of HTML syntax. So in HTML terminology data category can be stored as its-term , ITS-TERM , its-Term etc. All those attributes are treated as equivalent and will gets normalized upon DOM construction. 7.2 External Rules Link to external global rules is specified in href attribute of link element, with the link relation its-rules . Note: By default XPath 1.0 will be used for selection in global rules. If users prefer easier selection mechanism, they can switch query language to CSS selectors by using the queryLanguage attribute, see Section 5.3.1: Choosing Query Language . Note: HTML5 parsing algorithm automatically puts all HTML elements into XHTML namespace ( http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml ). Selectors used in global rules must take this into account. Note: Using XPath in global rules linked from HTML5 documents does not create an additional burden to implementers. Parsing HTML5 content produces a DOM tree that can be directly queried using XPath, functionality supported by all major browsers. 7.3 Inline Global Rules in HTML5 Inline global rules MUST be specified inside script which has type attribute with the value application/xml or application/its+xml . The script element itself MUST be child of head element. Comments MUST NOT be used inside global rules. Each script element MUST NOT contain more then one rules element. Note: It is preferred to use external global rules linked using link element. 7.4 Precedence between Selections The following precedence order is defined for selections of ITS information in various positions of HTML document (the first item in the list has the highest precedence): Implicit local selection in documents ( ITS local attributes on a specific element) Global selections in documents (using mechanism described in Section 7.2: External Rules or Section 7.3: Inline Global Rules in HTML5 ) Note: If identical selections are defined in different rules elements within one document, the selection defined by the last takes precedence. Selections via defaults for data categories, see Section 6.1: Position, Defaults, Inheritance and Overriding of Data Categories In case of conflicts between global selections via multiple rules elements, the last rule has higher precedence. 8 Using ITS Markup in XHTML XHTML documents aimed at public consumption by Web browsers SHOULD use syntax for local attributes described in Section 7.1: Mapping of Local Data Categories to HTML5 and SHOULD NOT use inline global rules in order to adhere to DOM Consistency HTML Design Principle .

Go to the table of contents. A References

This section is normative.

BCP47
Addison Phillips, Mark Davis. Tags for Identifying Languages , September 2009. Available at http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt .
HTML 4.01
Dave Raggett et al. HTML 4.01 . W3C Recommendation 24 December 1999. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224/ . The latest version of HTML 4.01 is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/html401.
HTML5
Robin Berjon et al. HTML5 . W3C Candidate Recommendation 06 August 2013. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-html5-20130806/ . The latest version of HTML5 is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/.
IANA Character Sets
Character Sets Available at http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets .
QAFRAMEWORK
Karl Dubost, Lynne Rosental, Dominique Hazaël-Massieux, Lofton Henderson. QA Framework: Specification Guidelines . W3C Recommendation 17 August 2005. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/REC-qaframe-spec-20050817/ . The latest version of QAFRAMEWORK is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/qaframe-spec/.
RELAX NG
Information technology -- Document Schema Definition Language (DSDL) -- Part 2: Regular-grammar-based validation -- RELAX NG . International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO/IEC 19757-2:2003.
RFC 2119
S. Bradner. Key Words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels . IETF RFC 2119, March 1997. Available at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt .
RFC 3987
Martin Dürst, Michel Suignard. Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs) . RFC 3987, January 2005. See http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt .
Selectors Level 3
Tantek Çelik, Elika J. Etemad, Daniel Glazman, Ian Hickson, Peter Linss, John Williams Selectors Level 3 . W3C Recommendation 29 September 2011. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/REC-css3-selectors-20110929/ . The latest version of Selectors Level 3 is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-selectors/.
Unicode
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 6.2.0 , , ISBN 978-1-936213-07-8, as updated from time to time by the publication of new versions. (See http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions for the latest version and additional information on versions of the standard and of the Unicode Character Database).
XLink 1.1
Steve DeRose, Eve Maler, David Orchard, Norman Walsh. XML Linking Language 1.1 . W3C Recommendation 6 May 2010. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/REC-xlink11-20100506/ . The latest version of XLink 1.1 is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink11/.
XML 1.0
Tim Bray, Jean Paoli, C.M. Sperberg-McQueen, et al., editors. Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fourth (Fifth Edition) , W3C Recommendation 16 August 2006. 26 November 2008. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml-20060816/ http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126// . The latest version of XML 1.0 is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/. http://www.w3.org/TR/xml/.
XML ID
Jonathan Marsh, Daniel Veillard, Norman Walsh. xml:id Version 1.0 . W3C Recommendation 9 September 2005. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/REC-xml-id-20050909/ . The latest version of xml:id Version 1.0 is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-id/.
XML Infoset
John Cowan, Richard Tobin. XML Information Set (Second Edition) . W3C Recommendation 4 February 2004. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xml-infoset-20040204/ . The latest version of XML Infoset is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-infoset/.
XML Names
Tim Bray, Dave Hollander, Andrew Layman, Richard Tobin. Namespaces in XML (Second Edition) . W3C Recommendation 16 August 2006. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml-names-20060816/ . The latest version of XML Names is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names/.
XML Schema
Henry S. Thompson, David Beech, Murray Maloney, Noah Mendelsohn. XML Schema Part 1: Structures Second Edition . W3C Recommendation 28 October 2004. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-1-20041028/ . The latest version of XML Schema is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-1/.
XML Schema Part 2
Paul V. Biron, Ashok Malhotra. XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition . W3C Recommendation 28 October 2004. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028/ . The latest version of XML Schema is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.
XPath 1.0
James Clark. XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0 . W3C Recommendation 16 November 1999. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xpath-19991116/ . The latest version of XPath 1.0 is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath/ .

Go to the table of contents. B Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) MIME Type

This section is normative.

This section defines a MIME type for Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) documents. It covers both ITS 1.0 and ITS 2.0.

Type name: application

Subtype name: its+xml

Required parameters: none

Optional parameters: charset

This parameter has identical semantics to the charset parameter of the "application/xml" media type as specified in IETF RFC 3023.

Encoding considerations: Identical to those of "application/xml" as described in IETF RFC 3023, section 3.2, as applied to an ITS document.

Security considerations: An ITS 1.0 or ITS 2.0 document may cause arbitrary URIs or IRIs to be dereferenced, via the @xlink:href attribute at the its:rules element. Therefore, the security issues of [RFC 3987] Section 8 should be considered. In addition, the contents of resources identified by file: URIs can in some cases be accessed, processed and returned as results. An implementation of ITS global rules requires the support of XPath 1.0 or its successor. Hence, processing of global rules might encompass dereferencing of URIs or IRIs during computation of XPath expressions. Arbitrary recursion is possible, as is arbitrarily large memory usage, and implementations may place limits on CPU and memory usage, as well as restricting access to system-defined functions. ITS 1.0 and ITS 2.0 permit extensions. Hence it is possible that application/its+xml may describe content that has security implications beyond those described here.

Interoperability considerations: There are no known interoperability issues.

Published specification: http://www.w3.org/TR/2007/REC-its-20070403/ and http://www.w3.org/TR/its20/ .

Any XML document containing ITS 1.0 "its:rules" elements http://www.w3.org/TR/its/#selection-global can be labeled with application/its+xml . http://www.w3.org/TR/its/EX-link-external-rules-2.xml Provides an example of a document linking to a file with ITS 1.0 and ITS 2.0 "rules". The link target is at http://www.w3.org/TR/its/EX-link-external-rules-1.xml . There is no need that the link target has "its:rules" as a root element. The processing semantics is that rules are gathered in document order.

Applications that use this media type: This new media type is being registered to allow for deployment of ITS 1.0 and ITS 2.0 on the World Wide Web., e.g., by localization tools.

Additional information:

Person & email address to contact for further information: World Wide Web Consortium <web-human at w3.org>

Intended usage: COMMON

Restrictions on usage: none

Author / Change controller: The Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) 1.0 and 2.0 specifications are a work product of the World Wide Web Consortium's Internationalization Tag Set Working Group. The W3C has change control over this specification.

Go to the table of contents. C Values for the Localization Quality Issue Type

This section is normative.

The locQualityIssueType attribute provides a basic level of interoperability between different localization quality assurance systems. tools. It offers a list of high-level quality issue types common in fully automatic and human manual localization quality assessment. Tools can map their internal categories types to these categories types in order to exchange information about the kinds of issues they identify and take appropriate action even if another tool does not know the specific issues identified by the generating tool.

Note:

Note: The values of locQualityIssueType were derived from an early version of the QTLaunchPad project's Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) framework. MQM is based on a careful analysis of existing translation quality assessment tools and models, such as the LISA QA Model, SAE J2450, and various commercial tools. The values represent common issue types found in those models and are designed to provide interoperability between models. Differences in granularity and in issue types may prevent full interoperability, but using the shared values will maximize interoperability where possible.

The scope column in the following table identifies whether the issue type applies to the source content (“S”), target content (“T”) or both (“S or T”).

The values listed in the following table are allowed for locQualityIssueType . The Ideally the values a tool implementing the data category produces for the attribute MUST match matches one of the values provided in this table and MUST be are as semantically accurate. If accurate as possible. For example, marking the phrase “These man is” as a tool can terminology issue, rather than as a grammar issue would be semantically inaccurate. Tools are encouraged to map its their internal values to these categories it MUST do so and MUST NOT use the types. The value other , which is reserved strictly for values that cannot be mapped mapped.

Note:

For tools generating ITS 2.0 Localization Quality Issue markup, if one internal issue type can be categorized as multiple ITS 2.0 issue types, the first applicable one from the following table should be used . The list is ordered with more specific types first. For example, if a terminology database specifies that the term “USB memory stick” should be used instead of “USB pen drive” but the translated content has “Insert a USB pen drive into any available USB port”, terminology would be used instead of mistranslation because terminology occurs earlier in the list and is more specific than a (general) mistranslation . In the case where multiple separate issues must be marked on a single span (e.g., it contains both a mistranslation and a grammar issue), implementers may wish to these values. use standoff annotation, as shown in Example 75 and Example 76 .

Note:

The ITS Interest Group maintains an informative mappings of tools to localization tool-specific quality issue types. types and ITS 2.0 localization quality types . The ITS IG Wiki provides information on how to update that list . list. The purpose of these mappings is to document how tool internal information relates to the ITS 2.0 quality types. To foster interoperability, implementers are strongly encouraged to implement the ITS 2.0 quality types natively.

Value Description Example Scope Notes
terminology An incorrect term or a term from the wrong domain was used or terms are used inconsistently.
  • The localization had “Pen Drive” when corporate terminology specified that “USB Stick” was to be used.

  • The localization localized text inconsistently used "Start" and "Begin".

  • A text renders the Hungarian term recsegőhid as “buzzer bridge” in English (a literal translation), but the term to be used in English is “wedge block,” as specified in a terminology list supplied to the translator.

S or T This value is not intended for simple typographical errors or word choice not related to defined terminologies. For example, a mistyping of “pin” as “pen” or the use of “imply” instead of “infer” (mistaking two commonly confused words) would not count as terminology issues and is best categorized as either spelling errors or mistranslations, depending on the nature of the issue. Terminology refers only to cases where incorrect choices about terms (either formal or commonly defined in a domain) are involved.
mistranslation The content of the target mistranslates the content of the source.
  • The English source reads "An ape succeeded in grasping a banana lying outside its cage with the help of a stick" but the Italian translation reads "l'ape riuscì a prendere la banana posta tuori dall sua gabbia aiutandosi con un bastone" ("A bee succeeded...")

T Issues related to translation of specific terms related to the domain or task-specific language should are to be categorized as terminology issues.
omission Necessary text has been omitted from the localization or source.
  • One or more segments found in the source that should have been translated intended for translation are missing in the target.

  • After an alignment, a verification tool flags the pairs of aligned segments where the target has no corresponding source because of incorrect segmentation or some alignment issue. In such case the 'omission' type may apply to the source entry.

S or T This type should value is not to be used for missing whitespace or formatting codes, but instead should has to be reserved for linguistic content.
untranslated Content that should have has been translated was intended for translation is left untranslated.
  • The source segment reads "The Professor said to Smith that he would hear from his lawyer" but the Hungarian localization reads "A professzor azt modta mondta Smithnek, hogy he would hear from his lawyer."

T omission takes precedence over untranslated . Omissions are distinct in that they address cases where text is not present, while untranslated addresses cases where text has been carried from the source untranslated.
addition The translated text contains inappropriate additions.
  • The translated text contains a note from the translator to himself to look up a term; the note should ought to have been deleted but was not.

T
duplication Content has been duplicated improperly.
  • A section of the target text was inadvertently copied twice in a copy and paste operation.

T
inconsistency The text is inconsistent with itself or is translated inconsistently (NB: not for use with terminology inconsistency).
  • The text states that an event happened in 1912 in one location but in another states that it happened in 1812.

  • The translated text uses different wording for multiple instances of a single regulatory notice that occurs in multiple locations in a series of manuals.

S or T
grammar The text contains a grammatical error (including errors of syntax and morphology).
  • The text reads "The guidelines says that users should use a static grounding strap."

S or T
legal The text is legally problematic (e.g., it is specific to the wrong legal system).
  • The localized text is intended for use in Thailand but includes U.S. regulatory notices.

  • A text translated into German contains comparative advertising claims that are not allowed by German law.

S or T
register The text is written in the wrong linguistic register of uses slang or other language variants inappropriate to the text.
  • A financia financial text in U.S. English refers to dollars as "bucks".

S or T
locale-specific-content The localization contains content that does not apply to the locale for which it was prepared.
  • A text translated for the Japanese market contains call center numbers in Texas and refers to special offers available only in the U.S.

S or T Legally inappropriate material should is to be classified as legal .
locale-violation Text violates norms for the intended locale.
  • A text localized into German has dates in YYYY-MM-DD mm/dd/yyyy format instead of in DD.MM.YYYY. DD.MM.YYYY .

  • A text for the Irish market uses American-style foot and inch measurements instead of centimeters.

  • A text intended for a U.S.-based audience uses U.K. spellings such as “centre” and “colour.”

S or T This value can be used for spelling errors only if they relate specifically to locale expectations (e.g., a text consistently uses British instead of U.S. spellings for a text intended for the U.S.). If these errors are not systematic (e.g., a text uses U.S. spellings but has a single instance of “centre”), they are instead to be counted as spelling errors.
style The text contains stylistic errors.
  • Company style guidelines dictates dictate that all individuals be referred to as Mr. or Ms. with a family name, but the text refers to “Jack Smith”.

S or T
characters The text contains characters that are garbled or incorrect or that are not used in the language in which the content appears.
  • A text should ought to have a '•' but instead has a '¥' sign.

  • A text translated into German omits text erroneously uses û, ô, and â instead of the umlauts over appropriate 'ü', 'ö', and 'ä'.

  • A Japanese text has been garbled and appears with Devanagari characters.

S or T Characters ought to be used in cases of garbling or systematic use of inappropriate characters, not for spelling issues where individual characters are replaced with incorrect one.
misspelling The text contains a misspelling.
  • A German text misspells the word "Zustellung" as "Zustellüng". "Zustlelung".

S or T
typographical The text has typographical errors such as omitted/incorrect punctuation, incorrect capitalization, etc.
  • An English text has the following sentence: "The man whom, we saw, was in the Military and carried it's insignias".

S or T
formatting The text is formatted incorrectly.
  • Warnings in the text are supposed to be set in italic face, but instead appear in bold face.

  • Margins of the text are narrower than specified.

S or T
inconsistent-entities The source and target text contain different named entities (dates, times, place names, individual names, etc.)
  • The name "Thaddeus Cahill" appears in an English source but is rendered as "Tamaš Cahill" in the Czech version.

  • The date "February 9, 2007" appears in the source but the translated text has "2. September 2007".

S or T
numbers Numbers are inconsistent between source and target.
  • A source text states that an object is 120 cm long, but the target text says that it is 129 cm. long.

S or T Some tools may correct for differences in units of measurement to reduce false positives. positives (e.g., a tool might adjust for differences in values between inches and centimeters to avoid flagging numbers that seem to be different but are in fact equivalent).
markup There is an issue related to markup or a mismatch in markup between source and target.
  • The source segment has five markup tags but the target has only two.

  • An opening tag in the text is missing a closing tag.

S or T
pattern-problem The text fails to match a pattern that defines allowable content (or matches one that defines non-allowable content).
  • The tool disallows the regular expression pattern ['"”’][\.,] but the translated text contains "A leading “expert”, a political hack, claimed otherwise."

  • A tool uses a regular expression to ensure that the content of an element is an IRI and flags what appears to be a malformed IRI.

S or T Defining what is or is not an allowable pattern is up to the processing application and is beyond the scope of this specification. Best practice would be to use the Comment attribute to specify the pattern that led to the issue.
whitespace There is a mismatch in whitespace between source and target content. content or the text violates specific rules related to the use of whitespace.
  • A source segment starts with six space characters but the corresponding target segment has two non-breaking spaces at the start.

  • The text uses a run of 12 space characters instead of a tab character to align numbers in a table.

  • Two space characters appear after a period even though only a single space is to be used.

S or T
internationalization There is an issue related to the internationalization of content.
  • A line of programming code has embedded language-specific strings.

  • A user interface element leaves no room for text expansion.

  • A form allows only for U.S.-style postal addresses and expects five digit U.S. ZIP codes.

S or T There are many kinds of internationalization issues. This category value is therefore very heterogeneous in what it can refer to.
length There is a significant difference in source and target length.
  • The translation of a segment is five times as long as the source.

T or S or T What constitutes a "significant" difference in length is determined by the model referred to in the locQualityIssueProfileRef .
non-conformance The content is deemed to show poor statistical conformance to a reference corpus. Higher severity values reflect poorer conformance. The sentence "The harbour connected which to printer is busy or configared not properly." would have poor conformance. S or T Non-conformance is determined through the use of multiple statistical measures of similarity to a corpus of known-good content. For example, in a system that uses classification techniques the poor conformance might be a function of combined incorrect terminology, wrong spelling and bad grammar, or other features as determined by the system.
uncategorized The issue either has not been categorized or cannot be categorized.
  • A new version of a tool returns information on an issue that has not been previously checked and that is not yet classified.

  • A text is defective in ways that defy categorization, such as the appearance of nonsense garbled text of unknown origin (e.g., a translation shows an unintelligible result and/or appears unrelated to the source material).

S or T This category value has two the following uses:
  1. A tool can use it to pass through quality data from another tool in cases where the issues from the other tool are not classified (for example, a localization quality assurance tool interfaces with a third-party grammar checker).

  2. A tool's tool’s issues are not yet assigned to categories, values, and, until an updated assignment is made, they may be listed as uncategorized . In this case it is recommended that issues be assigned to appropriate categories values as soon as possible since uncategorized does not foster interoperability.

  3. uncategorized can be used where a portion of text is defective in a way that defies assignment to a value in either the originating system or in any other ITS localization quality markup to indicate that it is uncategorizable.

other Any issue that cannot be assigned to any values listed above. S or T
  • This category value allows for the inclusion of any issues not included in the previously listed values. This It is encouraged not to use this value MUST NOT be used for any tool- or model-specific issues that can be mapped to the values listed above.

  • In addition, this value is not synonymous with uncategorized in that uncategorized issues may be assigned to another precise value, while other issues cannot.

  • If a system has an "miscellaneous" or "other" category, value, it MUST be mapped is better to map this to this value even if the specific instance of the issue might be mapped to another category. value.

Note:

The value uncategorized is used for issues that have not (yet) been categorized into a more specific value. For example, an automatic process might flag issues for attention but not provide any further detail or categorization: such issues would be listed as uncategorized in ITS 2.0. It may also be used when the exact nature of an issue is unclear and it cannot be categorized as a result (e.g., text is seriously garbled and the cause it unclear). By contrast other is used when the nature of an issue is clear but it cannot be categorized in one of the ITS 2.0 categories (or when a model or tool has its own “other” category). For example, in translation of subtitles there is a “respeaking” error category that does not correspond to any ITS 2.0 category and is highly specific to that environment; respeaking errors would therefore be categorized as other in ITS 2.0.

Go to the table of contents. C References (Non-Normative) D Schemas for ITS

[Ed. note: Need

This section is informative.

Note:

The schemas are only informative and may be updated any time. An updated version of the schemas can be found in the ITS 2.0 test suite .

The following schemas define ITS elements and attributes and can be used as building blocks when you want to complete entry integrate ITS markup into your own XML vocabulary. You can see examples of such integration in Best Practices for provenance data model.] XML Internationalization .

Foreign elements can be used only inside rules . Foreign attributes can be used on any element defined in ITS.

The following four schemas are provided:

1. NVDL document : The following [NVDL] PROV-DM Editors tbd. Provenance data model . Details document allows validation of ITS markup that has been added to a host vocabulary. Only ITS elements and attributes are checked. Elements and attributes of the host language are ignored during validation against this NVDL document/schema.

Example 91: NVDL schema for ITS

"color: maroon"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

"color: #000096"><rules xmlns="http://purl.oclc.org/dsdl/nvdl/ns/structure/1.0">
  
"color: #000096"><namespace ns="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its">
    
"color: #000096"><validate schema="its20-elements.rng"/>   
  
"color: #000096"></namespace>
  
"color: #000096"><namespace ns="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" match="attributes">
    
"color: #000096"><validate schema="its20-attributes.rng"/>
  
"color: #000096"></namespace>
  
"color: #000096"><anyNamespace>
    
"color: #000096"><allow/>
  
"color: #000096"></anyNamespace>

"color: #000096"></rules>

[Source file: schemas/its20.nvdl ]

2. RELAX NG schema for elements and attributes : The NVDL schema depends on the following two schemas: RELAX NG schema for ITS elements, and RELAX NG schema for all ITS local attributes.

Example 92: RELAX NG schema for ITS elements

"color: maroon"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

"color: #000096"><grammar xmlns="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0">
  
"color: #000096"><include href="its20.rng"/>
  
"color: #000096"><start>
    
"color: #000096"><choice>
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-rules"/>
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-span"/>
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-standoff"/>
    
"color: #000096"></choice>
  
"color: #000096"></start>

"color: #000096"></grammar>

[Source file: schemas/its20-elements.rng ]

( RELAX NG compact syntax version of schema )

Example 93: RELAX NG schema for all ITS local attributes

"color: maroon"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

"color: #000096"><grammar xmlns="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0">
  
"color: #000096"><include href="its20.rng"/>
  
"color: #000096"><start>
    
"color: #000096"><group>
      
"color: #000096"><optional>
        
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-local.attributes"/>
      
"color: #000096"></optional>
      
"color: #000096"><optional>
        
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-attribute.version"/>
      
"color: #000096"></optional>
    
"color: #000096"></group>
  
"color: #000096"></start>

"color: #000096"></grammar>

[Source file: schemas/its20-attributes.rng ]

( RELAX NG compact syntax version of schema )

3. Base RELAX NG schema for ITS : All ITS elements and attributes referenced by previous two schemas are defined in the base RELAX NG schema for ITS.

Example 94: Base RELAX NG schema for ITS

"color: maroon"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

"color: #000096"><grammar ns="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" xmlns:a="http://relaxng.org/ns/compatibility/annotations/1.0" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" xmlns="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0" datatypeLibrary="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-datatypes">
  
"color: #000096"><include href="its20-types.rng"/>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.translate">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:translate">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-translate.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.translate.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="translate">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-translate.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.dir">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:dir">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-dir.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.dir.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="dir">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-dir.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locNote">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locNote">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locNote.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locNote.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locNote">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locNote.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locNoteType">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locNoteType">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locNoteType.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locNoteType.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locNoteType">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locNoteType.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locNoteRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locNoteRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locNoteRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locNoteRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locNoteRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locNoteRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.termInfoRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:termInfoRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-termInfoRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.termInfoRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="termInfoRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-termInfoRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.term">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:term">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-term.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.term.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="term">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-term.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.termConfidence">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:termConfidence">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-termConfidence.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.termConfidence.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="termConfidence">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-termConfidence.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.withinText">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:withinText">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-withinText.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.withinText.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="withinText">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-withinText.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.domainMapping">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:domainMapping">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-domainMapping.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.domainMapping.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="domainMapping">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-domainMapping.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.taConfidence">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:taConfidence">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-taConfidence.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.taConfidence.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="taConfidence">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-taConfidence.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.taClassRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:taClassRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-taClassRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.taClassRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="taClassRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-taClassRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.taIdent">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:taIdent">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-taIdent.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.taIdent.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="taIdent">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-taIdent.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.taIdentRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:taIdentRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-taIdentRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.taIdentRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="taIdentRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-taIdentRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.taSource">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:taSource">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-taSource.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.taSource.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="taSource">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-taSource.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.localeFilterList">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:localeFilterList">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-localeFilterList.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.localeFilterList.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="localeFilterList">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-localeFilterList.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.localeFilterType">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:localeFilterType">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-localeFilterType.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.localeFilterType.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="localeFilterType">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-localeFilterType.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.person">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:person">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-person.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.person.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="person">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-person.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.personRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:personRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-personRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.personRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="personRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-personRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.org">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:org">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-org.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.org.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="org">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-org.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.orgRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:orgRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-orgRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.orgRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="orgRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-orgRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.tool">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:tool">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-tool.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.tool.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="tool">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-tool.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.toolRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:toolRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-toolRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.toolRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="toolRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-toolRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revPerson">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:revPerson">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revPerson.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revPerson.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="revPerson">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revPerson.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revPersonRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:revPersonRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revPersonRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revPersonRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="revPersonRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revPersonRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revOrg">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:revOrg">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revOrg.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revOrg.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="revOrg">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revOrg.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revOrgRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:revOrgRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revOrgRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revOrgRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="revOrgRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revOrgRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revTool">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:revTool">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revTool.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revTool.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="revTool">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revTool.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revToolRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:revToolRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revToolRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.revToolRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="revToolRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-revToolRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.provRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:provRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-provRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.provRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="provRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-provRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.provenanceRecordsRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:provenanceRecordsRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-provenanceRecordsRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.provenanceRecordsRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="provenanceRecordsRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-provenanceRecordsRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssuesRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityIssuesRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssuesRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssuesRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityIssuesRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssuesRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssueType">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityIssueType">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssueType.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssueType.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityIssueType">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssueType.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssueComment">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityIssueComment">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssueComment.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssueComment.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityIssueComment">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssueComment.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssueSeverity">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityIssueSeverity">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssueSeverity.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssueSeverity.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityIssueSeverity">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssueSeverity.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssueProfileRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityIssueProfileRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssueProfileRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssueProfileRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityIssueProfileRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssueProfileRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssueEnabled">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityIssueEnabled">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssueEnabled.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityIssueEnabled.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityIssueEnabled">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityIssueEnabled.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityRatingScore">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityRatingScore">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityRatingScore.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityRatingScore.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityRatingScore">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityRatingScore.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityRatingVote">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityRatingVote">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityRatingVote.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityRatingVote.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityRatingVote">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityRatingVote.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityRatingScoreThreshold">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityRatingScoreThreshold">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityRatingScoreThreshold.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityRatingScoreThreshold.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityRatingScoreThreshold">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityRatingScoreThreshold.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityRatingVoteThreshold">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityRatingVoteThreshold">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityRatingVoteThreshold.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityRatingVoteThreshold.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityRatingVoteThreshold">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityRatingVoteThreshold.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityRatingProfileRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:locQualityRatingProfileRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityRatingProfileRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.locQualityRatingProfileRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="locQualityRatingProfileRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-locQualityRatingProfileRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.mtConfidence">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:mtConfidence">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-mtConfidence.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.mtConfidence.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="mtConfidence">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-mtConfidence.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.allowedCharacters">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:allowedCharacters">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-allowedCharacters.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.allowedCharacters.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="allowedCharacters">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-allowedCharacters.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.storageSize">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:storageSize">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-storageSize.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.storageSize.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="storageSize">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-storageSize.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.storageEncoding">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:storageEncoding">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-storageEncoding.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.storageEncoding.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="storageEncoding">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-storageEncoding.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.lineBreakType">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:lineBreakType">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-lineBreakType.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.lineBreakType.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="lineBreakType">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-lineBreakType.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.annotatorsRef">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:annotatorsRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-annotatorsRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.annotatorsRef.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="annotatorsRef">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-annotatorsRef.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.version">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:version">
      
"color: #000096"><a:documentation>Version of ITS</a:documentation>
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-version.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.version.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="version">
      
"color: #000096"><a:documentation>Version of ITS</a:documentation>
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-version.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.queryLanguage">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="its:queryLanguage">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-queryLanguage.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.queryLanguage.nons">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="queryLanguage">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-queryLanguage.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.xlink.href">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="xlink:href">
      
"color: #000096"><data type="anyURI"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.xlink.type">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="xlink:type">
      
"color: #000096"><value>simple</value>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-attribute.selector">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute name="selector">
      
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-absolute-selector.type"/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-foreign-attribute">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute>
      
"color: #000096"><anyName>
        
"color: #000096"><except>
          
"color: #000096"><nsName ns=""/>
        
"color: #000096"></except>
      
"color: #000096"></anyName>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-foreign-no-xml-id-attribute">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute>
      
"color: #000096"><anyName>
        
"color: #000096"><except>
          
"color: #000096"><nsName ns=""/>
          
"color: #000096"><name>xml:id</name>
        
"color: #000096"></except>
      
"color: #000096"></anyName>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-foreign-no-xlink-attribute">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute>
      
"color: #000096"><anyName>
        
"color: #000096"><except>
          
"color: #000096"><nsName ns=""/>
          
"color: #000096"><nsName ns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"/>
        
"color: #000096"></except>
      
"color: #000096"></anyName>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-any-attribute">
    
"color: #000096"><attribute>
      
"color: #000096"><anyName/>
    
"color: #000096"></attribute>
  
"color: #000096"></define>
  
"color: #000096"><define name="its-any-element">
    
"color: #000096"><element>
      
"color: #000096"><anyName/>
      
"color: #000096"><zeroOrMore>
        
"color: #000096"><choice>
          
"color: #000096"><zeroOrMore>
            
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-any-attribute"/>
          
"color: #000096"></zeroOrMore>
          
"color: #000096"><text/>
          
"color: #000096"><ref name="its-any-element"/>
        
"color: #000096"></choice>
      
"color: #000096"></zeroOrMore>
    
"color: #000096"></element>
  
"color: #000096"></define>